Wednesday, April 30, 2008

Pridie Kalen. Maji: S. Catharinae Sinensis, V.O.P.

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Proprium Missae ex Missale O.P. cum lectionibus variis

Sideribus cunctis fulgentior est Catharina...

Officium (sive Introitus):

Deus, qui beatae Catharinae, virginitatis et patientiae speciali privilegio decoratae, malignantium spirituum certamina vincere, et in amore tui nominis inconcusse permanere tribuisti; concede quaesumus, ut ejus imitatione calcata mundi nequitia, et omnium hostium superatis insidiis, ad tuam secure gloriam transeamus. Per Dominum.

Lectio Epistolae S. Pauli ad Galatas (6:14-18):

Fratres: Mihi autem absit gloriári, nisi in cruce Dómini nostri Jesu Christi: per quem mihi mundus crucifíxus est, et ego mundo. In Christo enim Jesu neque circumcísio áliquid valet, neque præpútium, set nova creatúra. Et quicúumque hanc régulam secúti fúerint, pax super illos, et misericórdia, et super Israël Dei. De cétero nemo mihi moléstus sit: ego enim stígmata Dómini Jesu in córpore meo porto. Grátia Dómini nostri Jesu Christi cum spíritu vestro, fratres. Amen.

Sequentia Sancti Evangelii secundum Matthaeum (13:31-34):

In illo tempore: Dixit Jesus turbis parabolam hanc: grano sinapis, quod accipiens homo seminavit in agro suo: quod minimum quidem est omnibus seminibus: cum autem creverit, majus est omnibus oleribus, et fit arbor, ita ut volucres cæli veniant, et habitent in ramis ejus. Aliam parabolam locutus est eis: Simile est regnum cælorum fermento, quod acceptum mulier abscondit in farinæ satis tribus, donec fermentatum est totum. Hæc omnia locutus est Jesus in parabolis ad turbas: et sine parabolis non loquebatur eis: ut impleretur quod dictum erat per prophetam dicentem: Aperiam in parabolis os meum; eructabo abscondita a constitutione mundi.

Acta Sanctae Catharinae Sienensis, ex II Nocturno:

Catharína, virgo Senénsis, piis orta paréntibus, beáti Domínici hábitum quem soróres de Pœniténtia gestant, impetrávit. Summa ejus fuit abstinéntia et admirábilis vitæ austéritas. Invénta est aliquándo a die Cínerum usque ad Ascensiónem Dómini jejúnium perduxísse, sola Eucharístiæ communióne conténta. Luctabátur quam frequentíssime cum dæmónibus, multísque illórum moléstiis vexabátur ; æstuábat fébribus, nec aliórum morbórum cruciátu carébat. Magnum et sanctum erat Catharínæ nomen, et úndique ad eam ægróti et malígnis vexáti spirítibus deducebántur. Languóribus et fébribus in Christi nómine imperábat, et dæmones cogébat ab obséssis abíre corpóribus.

Catherine was a maiden of Siena, and was born of godly parents. She took the habit of the Third Order of St. Dominic. Her fasts were most severe, and the austerity of her life wonderful. It was discovered that on some occasions she took no food at all from Ash Wednesday till Ascension Day, receiving all needful strength by taking Holy Communion. She was engaged oftentimes in a wrestling with devils, and was sorely tried by them with divers assaults : she was consumed by fevers, and suffered likewise from other diseases. Great and holy was the name of Catherine, and sick folk, and such as were vexed with evil spirits were brought to her from all quarters. Through the Name of Christ, she had command over sickness and fever, and forced the foul spirits to leave the bodies of the tormented.

Cum Pisis immorarétur, die Domínico, refécta cibo cælésti et in éxtasim rapta, vidit Dóminum crucifíxum magno cum lúmine adveniéntem, et ex ejus vúlnerum cicatrícibus quinque rádios ad quinque loca sui córporis descendéntes ; ideóque, mystérium advértens, Dóminum precáta ne cicatríces apparérent, contínuo rádii colórem sanguíneum mutavérunt in spléndidum, et in formam puræ lucis pervenérunt ad manus, pedes et cor ejus ; ac tantus erat dolor, quem sensibíliter patiebátur, ut nisi Deus minuísset, brevi se créderet moritúram. Hanc ítaque grátiam amantíssimus Dóminus nova grátia cumulávit, ut sentíret dolórem illápsa vi vúlnerum, et cruénta signa non apparérent. Quod ita contigísse cum Dei fámula confessário suo Raymúndo retulísset, ut óculis étiam repræsentarétur, rádios in imagínibus beátæ Catharínæ ad dicta quinque loca pertingéntes, pia fidélium cura pictis colóribus expréssit.

While she dwelt at Pisa, on a certain Lord's Day, after she had received the Living Bread which came down from heaven, she was in the spirit ; and saw the Lord nailed to the Cross advancing towards her. There was a great light round about him, and five rays of light streaming from the five marks of the Wounds in his Feet, and Hands, and Side, which smote her upon the five corresponding places in her body. When Catherine perceived this vision, she besought the Lord that no marks might become manifest upon her flesh, and straightway the five beams of light changed from the colour of blood into that of gold, and touched in the form of pure light her feet, and hands, and side. At this moment the agony which she felt was so piercing, that she believed that if God had not lessened it, she would have died. Thus the Lord in his great love for her, gave her this great grace, in a new and twofold manner, namely, that she felt all the pain of the wounds, but without there being any bloody marks to meet the gaze of men. This was the account given by the handmaiden of God to her Confessor Raymund, and it is for this reason that when the godly wishes of the faithful lead them to make pictures of the blessed Catherine, they paint her with golden rays of light proceeding from those five places in her body which correspond to the five places wherein our Lord was wounded by the nails and spear.

Doctrína ejus infúsa, non acquisíta fuit ; sacrárum litterárum professóribus difficíllimas de divinitáte quæstiónes proponéntibus respóndit. Nemo ad eam accéssit, qui non mélior abíerit : multa exstínxit ódia, et mortáles sedávit inimicítias. Pro pace Florentinórum, qui cum Ecclésia dissidébant et interdícto ecclesiástico suppósiti erant, Aveniónem ad Gregórium undécimum Pontíficem máximum profécta est. Cui étiam votum ejus de peténda Urbe, soli Deo notum, sese divínitus cognovísse monstrávit : deliberavítque Póntifex, ea étiam suadénte, ad Sedem suam Románam personáliter accédere ; quod et fecit. Eídem Gregório et Urbáno sexto ejus successóri acceptíssima fuit, adeo ut legatiónibus eórum funderétur. Dénique post innúmera virtútum insígnia, dono prophetíæ et plúribus clara miráculis, anno ætátis suæ tértio círciter et trigésimo, migrávit ad Sponsum. Quam Pius secúndus Póntifex máximus sanctárum Vírginum número adscrípsit.

The learning which Catherine had was not acquired but inspired. She answered Professors of Divinity upon the very hardest questions concerning God. No one was ever in her company without going away better. She healed many hatreds, and quieted the most deadly feuds. To make peace for the Florentines, who had quarrelled with the Church, and under an Ecclesiastical Interdict, she travelled to Avignon to to see the Supreme Pontiff Gregory XI. To him she shewed that she had had revealed to her from heaven his secret purpose of going back to Rome, which had been known only to God and himself. It was at her persuasion, as well as by his own judgment, that the Pope did in the end return to his own See. She was much respected by this Gregory, as well as by his successor Urban VI, who even employed her in their embassies. The Bridegroom took her home, when she was about thirty-three years old, after she had given almost countless proofs of extraordinary Christian graces, and manifestly displayed the gifts of Prophecy and miracles. Pope Pius II enrolled her among the Virgin Saints.


Munera, quaesumus Domine, quae tibi in honorem beatae Catharinae virginis offerimus, benigno suscipe vultu; et nos ejus meritis ac intercessione, ad tuam facito propitius pervenire laetitiam. Per Dominum.



Sumptis, Domine, divinae gratiae sacramentis, quaesumus, ut intercedente beata Catharina virgine tibi acceptissima, hostiles superemus incursus: et ad aeternae redemptionis augmenta proficiscentes, tuis semper oculis placeamus. Per Dominum.


Haec tuae virgo monumenta laudis
quae tuis laeti Catharina sacris
Hoc quidem pacto modulamur omnes
Perfer Olympo.

Si satis digne nequeant referri,
Annuas nobis veniam, precamur:
Non sumus tanti ingenii, fatemur
Optima Virgo.

Quis fuit dignas modulatus unquam
Virginis laudes? Quis in orbe toto
Feminae invictae peritura nunquam
Carmina pandet?

Praedita exemplis Catharina claris,
Moribus praestans, sapiens abunde,
Temperans, fortis, pia, justa, prudens,
Aethera scandis.

Quem latet virtus facinusque clarum,
Quo nequit dici sanctius per orbem?
Vulnerum formam miserata Christi
Exprimis ipsa.

Nam brevis, maestae miseraeque vitae
Et malis cunctis penitus refertae
Fortiter spernens pretiosa quaeque
Sidera adisti.

Gratias summas habeamus omnes
Filio magni Genitoris almo:
Spiritum sanctum veneremur, et sit
Laus tamen una. Amen.


Sunday, April 27, 2008

Dominica Quinta post Pascha (Semiduplex)

Proprium Missae cum sermonibus S. Augustini & S. Thomae.

Introitus (mp3, partit.): VOCEM jucunditatis annuntiate, et audiatur, alleluja: annuntiate usque ad extremum terrae: liberavit Dominus populum suum, alleluja, alleluja. Ps. Jubilate Deo, omnis terra, psalmum dicite nomini ejus: date gloriam laudi ejus. V. Gloria Patri, et Filio, et Spiritui Sancto. Sicut erat in principio, et nunc, et semper, et in saecula saeculorum. Amen.

Introit (Isaias 48, 20): DECLARE the voice of joy, and let it be heard, alleluia: declare it even unto the ends of the earth; the Lord hath delivered His people, alleluia, alleluia. Ps. 65, 1-2. Shout with joy to God all the earth: sing ye a psalm to His name, give glory to His praise. V. Glory be to the Father, and to the Son, and to the Holy Ghost. As it was in the beginning, is now, and ever shall be, world without end. Amen.

Oratio: DEUS, A QUO bona cuncta procedunt, largire supplicibus tuis: ut cogitemus, te inspirante, quae recta sunt; et, te gubernante, eadem faciamus. Per Dominum nostrum Jesum Christum filium tuum, qui tecum vivit et regnat in unitate Spiritus Sancti, Deus, per omnia saecula saeculorum. Amen.

Collect: O GOD, from Whom all good things come, generously grant to us who beseech Thee that we may, by Thy inspiration, think those things which are right and, that we perform them under Thy guidance. Through Our Lord Jesus Christ, Thy Son, Who liveth and reigneth with Thee in the unity of the Holy Ghost, God, world without end. Amen.

Lectio Epistolae beati Jacobi Apostoli

CARISSIMI: Estote factores verbi, et non auditorest tantum: fallentes vosmetipsos Quia si quis auditor est verbi, et non factor: hic comparabitur viro consideranti vultum nativitatis suae in speculo: consideravit enim se, et abiit, et statim oblitus est qualis fuerit. Qui autem perspexerit in legem perfectam libertatis, et permanserit in ea, non auditor obliviosus factus, sed factor operis: hic beatus in facto suo erit. Si quis autem putat se religiosum esse, non refraenans linguam suam, sed seducens cor suum, hujus vana est religio. Religio munda, et immaculata apud Deum et Patrem, haec est: Visitare pupillos, et viduas in tribulatione eorum, et immaculatum se custodire, ab hoc saeculo.

Lesson from the Epistle of blessed James the Apostle (1, 22-27)

DEARLY beloved, Be ye doers of the word, and not hearers only, deceiving your own selves. For if a man be a hearer of the word, and not a doer, he shall be compared to a man beholding his own countenance in a glass. For he beheld himself, and went his way, and presently forgot what manner of man he was. But he that hath looked into the perfect law of liberty and hath continued therein, not becoming a forgetful hearer, but a doer of the work, this man shall be blessed in his deed. And if any man think himself to be religious, not bridling his tongue, but deceiving his own heart, this man's religion is vain. Religion clean and undefiled before God and the Father is this: to visit the fatherless and widows in their tribulation, and to keep one's self unspotted from this world.

Alleluia (mp3, partit.)

Alleluia, alleluia. V. Surrexit Christus, et illuxit nobis, quos redemit sanguine suo.

Alleluia (mp3, partit.)

Alleluia. V. Ioann. 16, 28 Exivi a Patre, et veni in mundum: iterum relinquo mundum, et vado ad Patrem. Alleluia.

+ Sequentia sancti Evangelii secundum Joannem.

IN ILLO tempore: Dixit Jesus discipulis suis: Amen, amen dico vobis: si quid petieritis Patrem in nomine meo, dabit vobis. Usque modo non petistis quidquam in nomine meo: Petite, et accipietis, ut gaudium vestrum sit plenum. Haec in proverbiis locutus sum vobis. Venit hora, cum jam non in proverbiis loquar vobis, sed palam de Patre annuntiabo vobis. In illo die in nomine meo petetis: et non dico vobis, quia ego rogabo Patrem de vobis: ipse enim Pater amat vos, quia vos me amastis, et credidistis, quia ego a Deo exivi. Exivi a Patre, et veni in mundum: iterum relinqua mundum, et vado ad Patrem. Dicunt ei discipuli ejus: Ecce nunc palam loqueris, et proverbium nullum dicis. Nunc scimus, quia scis omnia, et non opus est tibi, ut quis te interroget: in hoc credimus, quia a Deo existi.

+ Continuation of the Holy Gospel according to Saint John (16, 23-30)

AT THAT time, Jesus saith to His disciples, Amen, amen I say to you, if you ask the Father anything in My name, He will give it you. Hitherto you have not asked anything in My name: ask and you shall receive, that your joy may be full. These things I have spoken to you in proverbs: the hour cometh when I will no more speak to you in proverbs, but will show you plainly of the Father. In that day, you shall ask in My name; and I say not to you that I will ask the Father for you, for the Father Himself loveth you, because you have loved Me, and have believed that I came out from God. I came forth from the Father, and am come into the world: again I leave the world, and go to the Father. His disciples say to Him, Behold, now Thou speakest plainly, and speakest no proverb. Now we know that Thou knowest all things, and Thou needest not that any man should ask Thee: by this we believe that Thou camest forth from God.

Sermo S. Thomae de Dominica Quarta post Oct. Paschae, ex Epistola.

Si quis putat se religiosum esse, non refrenans linguam suam, sed seducens cor suum, hujus vana est religio, Jacob. 1. In istis verbis monet beatus Jacobus ad refrenationem linguae. Sunt autem tria quae debent movere ad refrenandam linguam. (1) Primo, quia qui non refrenat linguam suam cadit in multa peccata. (2) Secundo, quia multa mala poenae incurrit. (3) Tertio, quia qui refrenat linguam suam, multa bona acquirit. (1) De primo Proverb. 3: in multiloquio peccatum non deerit. (2) De secundo Eccl. 20: qui multis utitur verbis, affligit animam suam. (3) De tertio Prov. 18: qui respondet priusquam audiat, stultum se esse demonstrat.

  • (1) Circa primum notandum, quod Scriptura ponit multas linguas, per quas significantur diversa peccata quae committuntur per linguam; et tales linguae sunt refrenandae. (a) Prima est lingua dolosa, quae est in duplicibus et proditoribus. Psal. 119: libera me a lingua dolosa. Jer. 9: sagitta vulnerans lingua eorum, dolum locuta est; in ore suo pacem cum amico suo loquitur, et in occulto ponit ei insidias. (b) Secunda est lingua magniloqua, quae est in superbis et arrogantibus. Psal. 2: disperdat dominus universa labia dolosa, et linguam magniloquam. (c) Tertia est lingua serpentina et venenosa, quae est in invidis et detractoribus. Psal. 139: acuerunt linguas suas sicut serpentis, venenum aspidum sub labiis eorum. (d) Quarta est lingua mendax in perjurantibus, mentientibus, et falsis testibus. Prov. 16: sex sunt quae odit dominus: oculos sublimes, et linguam mendacem et cetera. (e) Quinta est lingua blanda, quae est in mentientibus. Prov. 6: ut custodias te a muliere mala, et a blanda lingua extraneae. (f) Sexta est lingua tertia, quae est in lenis et lenonibus. Eccl. 28: lingua tertia mulieres viratas ejecit, et privavit illas laboribus suis. Prima lingua in opere luxuriae est hominis diligentis mulierem; secunda mulieris dilectae; tertia est lingua nuntii vel nuntiae portantis verba dilecti ad dilectam, et dilectae ad dilectum. (g) Septima est lingua iniqua, quae est in adulatoribus. Prov. 14: malus obedit linguae iniquae. Lingua iniqua est quando facit malum adulatoribus provocantibus. (h) Octava est lingua gladiosa, quae est in iracundis et furiosis, qui conviciis et opprobriis occidunt multos. Psalm. 56: filii hominum, dentes eorum arma et sagittae, et lingua eorum gladius acutus. (i) Nona lingua fallax, quae est in malis mercatoribus et deceptoribus, qui fallunt simplicem, merces suas mendaciis praecommendando, vel falsis ponderibus, numeris et mensuris decipiendo. Prover. 26: lingua fallax non amat veritatem, idest Christum, et os lubricum operatur ruinas, scilicet corporis et animae. Prov. 21: qui congregat thesauros lingua mendacii, scilicet in operatione, vanus et excors, idest sine corde et discretione, et impingit ad laqueos mortis, scilicet velit nolit. (j) Decima est lingua blasphema, quae est in eis qui Deum et sanctos suos blasphemant. (k) Undecima est lingua acharis, idest sine gratia, quae est in histrionibus et derisoribus, et in eis qui verba otiosa libenter loquuntur. Eccl. 20: homo acharis quasi fabula vana.
  • Circa secundum notandum, quod multas poenas incurrit homo qui non refrenat linguam suam. (a) Primum est ruina. Prov. 12: propter labiorum peccata ruina proximat malo. Eccl. 10: labia stulti praecipitabunt eum. (b) Secundum est, quia nihil habere potest in vita ista prosperum. Psal. 139: vir linguosus non dirigetur in terra. (c) Tertium, labor. (d) Quartum, dolor. Psal. 9: sub lingua eorum labor et dolor. (e) Quintum, ipsius perversa destructio loquentis. (f) Sextum, ipsius de vita aeterna repulsio. Psal. 51: dilexisti omnia verba praecipitationis lingua dolosa: propterea Deus destruet te et cetera. (g) Septimum est ipsius malae linguae arefactio. Isa. 41: lingua eorum siti exaruit. (h) Octavum, ejus denique malae linguae in igne infernali cruciatio. Luc. 16: mitte Lazarum, ut intingat extremum digiti sui in aquam, ut refrigeret linguam meam, quia crucior in hac flamma. (i) Nonum, ejusdem linguae commanducatio. Apoc. 16: commanducabunt linguas suas prae dolore. (j) Decimum est mors aeterna. Prov. 18: mors et vita in manu linguae, idest in operatione vel operibus linguae. Qui refrenat linguam suam habebit vitam aeternam; qui non, habebit mortem aeternam. (k) Undecimum, sentiet omne malum. Proverb. 17: qui vertit linguam suam, scilicet nigrum in candidum vertit ad libitum audientiae, incidet in malum, scilicet Gehennae. Prov. 13: qui custodit os suum, custodit animam suam; qui autem inconsideratus est ad loquendum, sentiet mala, scilicet aeterna.
  • (3) Circa tertium notandum, quod multa bona contingunt ex refrenatione linguae. (a) Primum est vitae perfectio. Jac. 3: si quis in verbo non offendit, hic perfectus est vir. (b) Secundum est mentis in Deum elevatio. Thren. 3: sedebit solitarius, et tacebit et cetera. (c) Tertium est vitae aeternae acquisitio. Psal. 33: quis est homo qui vult vitam, diligit dies videre bonos? Cohibe linguam tuam a malo et cetera.

Ad idem, ex Evangelio.

Arguet mundum de peccato, de justitia et de judicio. Joan. 17. In istis verbis tria ponuntur, de quibus sanctus spiritus arguet mundanos. (1) Primo arguet de peccato, quod non debent facere; (2) secundo de justitia, quam debent facere; (3) tertio de judicio, quod debent expavescere.

  • (1) Primum ibi, de peccato; secundum ibi, de justitia; tertium ibi, de judicio. Circa primum notandum, quod peccatum fugiendum est propter multa: sed maxime propter tria magna mala quae facit homini. (a) Primo, quia ponit hic peccatores in multa miseria. Proverb. 14: miseros facit populos peccatum. (b) Secundo, quia privat hominem aeterna gloria. Isai. tollatur impius, ne videat gloriam Dei. (c) Tertio, quia ducit hominem ad aeterna supplicia. Matth. 25: ibunt hi in supplicium aeternum.
  • (2) Circa secundum notandum, quod justitia est facienda maxime propter tria. (a) Primo, quia ponit hic hominem in multa laetitia. Psal. 18: justitiae domini rectae, laetificantes corda. (b) Secundo, quia liberat hominem a morte perpetua. Prov. 2. Justitia, scilicet opera justitiae, liberabit a morte, scilicet aeterna. Prov. 25: qui sequitur justitiam, et misericordiam, inveniet vitam. (c) Tertio, quia ducit hominem ad aeterna gaudia. Matth. 25: justi autem ibunt in vitam aeternam.
  • (3) Circa tertium notandum, quod futurum judicium maxime est timendum propter tria. (a) Primo, propter judicis aequitatem. Psal. 7: Deus judex justus fortis et patiens. (b) Secundo propter judicis severitatem. Judith 6: in die judicii visitabit illos, et dabit ignes et vermes in carnes eorum. (c) Tertio propter sententiae irrevocabilitatem. Matth. 25: discedite a me maledicti in ignem aeternum. Aeternum dicitur quod finem non habet: a quo igne liberet nos Deus. Amen.

Homilía S. Augustíni Ep. Super Evangelium (ex II Nocturno)
A Homily of St. Augustine on the Gospel (from the II Nocturn)

Ex Tract. 102 in Joánnem: Dómini verba nunc ista tractanda sunt : Amen, amen, dico vobis : Si quid petieritis Patrem in nómine meo, dabit vobis. Jam dictum est in superióribus hujus Dominici sermónis partibus, propter eos, qui nonnulla petunt a Patre in Christi nómine, nec accípiunt : non peti in nómine Salvatoris, quidquid petitur contra ratiónem salútis. Non enim sonum litterárum ac syllabárum, sed quod sonus ipse significat, et quod eo sono recte ac veraciter intellígitur, hoc accipiéndus est dicere, cum dicit : In nómine meo.

We have now to consider these words of the Lord : Whatsoever ye shall ask the Father in my Name, he will give it you. It hath already been said in the previous part of this Sunday's discourse (for the benefit of those who ask the Father in Christ's Name and receive not), that whatsoever is asked, which tendeth not to salvation, is not asked in the Name of the Saviour. By the words : In my Name : we must not understand the vocalization of letter and syllables, but the meaning of what is said, the honest and true meaning of the words : In my Name.

Unde qui hoc sentit de Christo, quod non est de unico Dei Fílio sentiéndum, non petit in ejus nómine, etiamsi non táceat litteris ac syllábis Christum : quóniam in ejus nómine petit, quem cogitat cum petit. Qui vero quod est de illo sentiéndum sentit, ipse in ejus nómine petit : et áccipit quod petit, si non contra suam salútem sempitérnam petit. Accipit autem quando debet accípere. Quædam enim non negántur : sed ut congruo dentur témpore differúntur. Ita sane intelligéndum est quod ait : Dabit vobis : ut ea benefícia significáta sciántur his verbis, quæ ad eos, qui petunt, proprie pertinent. Exaudiúntur quippe omnes Sancti pro seipsis, non autem pro ómnibus exaudiúntur vel amicis, vel inimícis suis, vel quibúslibet aliis : quia non utcúmque dictum est, Dabit ; sed, Dabit vobis.

Hence, whosoever thinketh that Christ is not the only-begotten Son of God, such an one doth not ask anything in Christ's Name, even though he do actually utter letters and syllables to that effect, because by these sounds he meaneth not the real Christ, but a fancied being who hath no existence except in the speaker's imagination. But on the other hand, whosoever thinketh of Christ as he ought to think, the same asketh in Christ's Name, and receiveth, provided only it be nothing against his own everlasting salvation ; but if it be good for him to receive, he receiveth. Some things are not given at once, but kept over till a more fitting season. Such is the true interpretation of the words : He will give it you : namely, that to them that ask, all such things will be given as are good for them. All the saints also are heard when they ask for themselves, but not necessarily when they ask for their friends or their enemies, or others, even as it is written, not simply : He will give it : but rather : He will give it to you.

Usque modo, inquit, non petístis quidquam in nómine meo. Pétite, et accipiétis, ut gáudium vestrum sit plenum. Hoc quod dicit, gáudium plenum, profecto non carnale, sed spiritale gáudium est : et quando tantum erit, ut áliquid ei jam non sit addéndum, proculdubio tunc erit plenum. Quidquid ergo pétitur, quod pertineat ad hoc gáudium consequéndum, hoc est in nómine Christi peténdum, si divinam intelligimus grátiam, si vere beátam póscimus vitam. Quidquid autem áliud pétitur, nihil pétitur : non quia nulla omnino res est, sed quia in tantæ rei comparatióne quidquid áliud concupíscitur, nihil est.

Hitherto, saith the Lord, have ye asked nothing in my Name ; ask, and ye shall receive, that your joy may be full. This their joy, whereof he saith that it shall be full, is to be understood not of fleshly but of spiritual joy ; and when that joy is so great that it can be increased no more, then shall it without doubt be full. Therefore, whatsoever is asked which concerneth the fulfilling of this joy (that is, if we thereby aspire to receive God's grace, and so do ask for that life which is the really blessed one), that same is a thing which it is meet to ask in Christ's Name. If we ask anything else than this, we ask nothing (even though we think within ourselves that we are asking for something), because all things are nothing in comparison with this.

Offertorium (mp3, partit.)

Benedicite, gentes, Dominum Deum nostrum, et obaudite vocem laudis eius: qui posuit animam meam ad vitam, et non dedit commoveri pedes meos: benedictus Dominus, qui non amovit deprecationem meam, et misericordiam suam a me, alleluia.


Suscipe, Domine, fidelium preces cum oblationibus hostiarum: ut per haec piae devotionis officia ad caelestem gloriam transeamus. Per Dominum nostrum.

(Praefatio paschalis, in qua dicitur: in hoc potissimum gloriosius praedicare.)

Communio (mp3, partit.)

Cantate Domino, alleluia: cantate Domino, et benedicite nomen eius: bene nuntiate de die in diem salutare eius, alleluia, alleluia.


Tribue nobis, Domine, caelestis mensae virtute satiatis: et desiderare quae recta sunt, et desiderata percipere. Per Dominum.

(Cfr., Breviarium Romanum & cantus proprii.)

Monday, April 21, 2008

Undecimo Kalendas Maji: Sancti Anselmi, O.S.B.

Episcopi, Confessoris, et Ecclesiae Doctor
(Duplex majus)
Proprium Missae cum lectionibus variis


In medio Ecclesiae aperuit os ejus: et implevit eum Dominus epiritu sapientiae, et intellectus: stolam gloriae induit eum. (Ps. 91: 2) Bonum est confiteri Domino: et psallere nomini tuo, Altissime. v. Gloria Patri. In medio Ecclesiae.

In the midst of the Church the Lord opened his mouth: and filled him with the spirit of wisdom and understanding: He clothed him with a robe of glory. (Ps. 91: 2) It is good to give praise to the Lord: and to sing to Thy Name, O Most High. v. Glory be. In the midst of the Church.

Oratio: Deus, qui pópulo tuo ætérnæ salútis beátum Ansélmum minístrum tribuísti : præsta, quæsumus ; ut, quem Doctórem vitæ habúimus in terris, intercessórem habére mereámur in cælis. Per Dóminum.

Let us pray. O God, by whose providence blessed Anselm was sent to guide thy people in the way of everlasting salvation : grant we beseech thee, that as we have learned of him the doctrine of life on earth, so we may be found worthy to have him for our advocate in heaven. Through.

Lectio libri Sapientiae (Eccl. 15: 1-6):

Qui timet Deum faciet illud et qui continens est iustitiae adprehendet illam, et obviabit illi quasi mater honorificata et quasi mulier a virginitate suscipiet illum cibabit illum panem vitae et intellectus et aqua sapientiae salutaris potabit illum: et firmabitur in illo et non flectetur: et continebit illum et non confundetur et inaltabit illum apud proximos suos, et in medio ecclesiae aperiet os illius adimplebit illum spiritu sapientiae et intellectus et stolam gloriae vestiet illum. Iucunditatem et exultationem thesaurizabit super illum et nomine aeterno hereditabit illum. Dominus Deus noster.

Lesson from the Book of Wisdom. He that feareth God will do good: and he that possesseth justice shall lay hold on her, and she will meet him as an honorable mother. With the bread of life and understanding she shall feed him and give him the water of wholesome wisdom to drink: and she shall be made strong in him, and he shall not be moved: and she shall hold him fast, and he shall not be confounded: and she shall exalt him among his neighbors, and in the midst of the Church she shall open his mouth, and shall fill him with the spirit of wisdom and understanding, and shall clothe him with a robe of glory. The Lord our God shall heap upon him a treasure of joy and gladness, and shall cause him to inherit an everlasting name.


Alleluja, alleluja. V. (Dan. 12: 3) Qui docti fúerint, fulgébunt quasi splendor firmaménti. Allelúja. V. Qui ad justítiam erúdiant multos, quasi stellæ in perpétuas aternitátes. Allelúja.

Alleluia, alleluia. V. They that are learned shall shine as the brightness of the firmament. Alleluia. V. They that instruct many to justice, as stars for all eternity. Alleluia.

Lectio Sancti Evangelii secundum Matthaeum (V: 13-19)

In illo témpore: Dixit Jesus discípulis suis: Vos estis sal terræ. Quod si sal evanúerit, in quo saliétur? Ad níhilum valet ultra, nisi ut mittátur foras, et conculcétur ab homínibus. Vos estis lux mundi. Non potest cívitas abscóndi supra montem pósita. Neque accéndunt lucérnam, et ponent eam sub módio, sed super candelábrum, ut lúceat ómnibus qui in domo sunt. Sic lúceat lux vestra coram homínibus ut videant ópera vestra bona, et gloríficent Patrem vestrum, qui in cælis est. Nolite putáre, quóniam veni sólvere legem, aut prophétas: non veni sólvere sed adimplére. Amen quippe dico vobis, donec tránseat cælum et terra, ióta unum, aut unus apex non præteríbit a lege, donec ómnia fiant. Qui ergo sólverit unum do mandátis istis mínimis et dócuerit sic homines minimus vocábitur in regno cælórum: qui autem fécerit et docúerit, hic magnus vocábitur in regno cælórum.

At that time: Jesus said to his disciples: You are the salt of the earth. But if the salt lose its savour, wherewith shall it be salted? It is good for nothing any more but to be cast out, and to be trodden on by men. You are the light of the world. A city seated on a mountain cannot be hid. Neither do men light a candle and put it under a bushel, but upon a candlestick, that it may shine to all that are in the house. So let your light shine before men, that they may see your good works, and glorify your Father who is in heaven. Do not think that I am come to destroy the law, or the prophets. I am not come to destroy, but to fulfill. For amen I say unto you, till heaven and earth pass, one jot, or one tittle shall not pass of the law, till all be fulfilled. He therefore that shall break one of these least commandments, and shall so teach men, shall be called the least in the kingdom of heaven. But he that shall do and teach, he shall be called great in the kingdom of heaven.

Acta S. Anselmi Episcopi (ex II Nocturno)

Ansélmus, Augústæ Prætóriæ in fínibus Itáliæ, Gundúlpho et Ermembérga nobílibus et cathólicis paréntibus natus, a téneris annis assíduo litterárum stúdio atque perfectióris vitæ desidério, non obscúrum futúræ sanctitátis et doctrínæ spécimen dedit. Et licet juveníli ardóre aliquándo ad sæculi illécebras traherétur, brevi tamen in prístinam viam revocátus, pátria et bonis ómnibus derelíctis, ad monastérium Beccénse órdinis sancti Benedícti se cóntulit ; ubi, emíssa regulári professióne, sub Herluíno abbáte observantíssimo et Lanfránco viro doctíssimo, tanto ánimi fervóre et jugi stúdio in lítteris et virtútibus assequéndis profécit, ut mirum in modum tamquam sanctitátis et doctrínæ exémplar ab ómnibus haberétur.

Anselm was born of noble and Catholic parents, named Gundulph and Hermenberga, at Aosta, in Piedmont. From his tenderest years his diligence in study, and his aspirations to a more perfect state of life, gave no indistinct foreshadowing of the holiness and learning to which he afterwards attained. The heat of youth drew him for a while into the snares of the world, but he soon returned to his first courses, and, forsaking his own country and his goods, betook himself to the monastery of Bec, under the rule of St. Benedict. There he made his profession as a monk, and under the rigid discipline of Herluin, the Abbot, and the learned instruction of the profound Lanfranc, with great zeal of spirit and eager obedience to the Rule, he made such progress in learning and godliness, that he shone before all others as an ensample of holiness of life, and power of doctrine.

Abstinéntiæ et continéntiæ tantæ fuit, ut assiduitáte jejúnii omnis pene cibórum sensus in eo viderétur exstínctus. Diúrno enim témpore in exercítiis monásticis docéndo, et respondéndo váriis de religióne quæsítis eménso ; quod réliquum erat noctis, somno subtrahébat, ut divínis meditatiónibus, quas perénni lacrimárum imbre fovébat, mentem recreáret. Eléctus in priórem monastérii ínvidos fratres ita caritáte, humilitáte et prudéntia lenívit, ut quos æmulos accéperat, sibi et Deo amícos, máximo cum reguláris observántiæ emoluménto, rédderet. Mórtuo abbáte, et in ejus locum, licet invítus, sufféctus, tanta doctrínæ et sanctitátis fama ubíque refúlsit, ut non modo régibus et epíscopis veneratióni esset, sed sancto Gregório séptimo étiam accéptus, qui tunc magnis persecutiónibus agitátus, lítteras amóris plenas ad eum dedit, quibus se et Ecclésiam cathólicam ejus oratiónibus commendábat.

Mortification and purity were his marked characteristics, and by constant fasting all taste for food seemed to have died in him. He spent the day in the monastic work, in teaching, and in answering hard questions upon religion, and he took away from sleep during what remained to him of the night, that he might refresh his soul by thoughts of God, wherein he was alway comforted by an unceasing flow of tears. When he was chosen Prior of the monastery, he so won over, by his charity, loweliness, and wisdom, some brethren who looked ill upon him, that from enviers, as he had found them, he turned them into lovers of God and of himself likewise, with exceeding gain to the strictness of observance in that Abbey. After the death of the Abbot, Anselm, though against his own will, was chosen to succeed him. In this high place the light of his learning and holiness so shone all round about, that he was reverenced not only by Kings and Bishops, but was taken up by the holy Pope Gregory VII, who, amid the great persecutions which were then trying him, wrote with words of great love to Anselm to recommend himself and the Catholic Church to his prayers.

Defúnctus Lanfránco archiepíscopo Cantuariénsi, ejus olim præceptóre, Ansélmus, urgénte Willélmo Angliæ rege et instántibus clero ac pópulo, ipso tamen repugnánte, ad ejúsdem ecclésiæ régimen vocátus, statim (ut corrúptos pópuli mores reformáret) verbo et exémplo prius, dein scriptis, et concíliis celebrátis, prístinam pietátem et ecclesiásticam disciplínam redúxit. Sed cum mox idem Willélmus rex vi et minis Ecclésiæ jura usurpáre tentásset, ipse sacerdotáli constántia réstitit ; bonorúmque direptiónem et exsílium passus, Romam ad Urbánum secúndum se cóntulit : a quo honorífice excéptus et summis láudibus ornátus est, cum in Barénsi concílio Spíritum Sanctum étiam a Fílio procedéntem, contra Græcórum errórem, innúmeris Scripturárum et sanctórum Patrum testimóniis propugnásset. E vivis Willélmo subláto, ab Henríco rege, ejus fratre, in Angliam revocátus, obdormívit in Dómino ; famam non solum miraculórum et sanctitátis (præcípue ob insígnem devotiónem erga Dómini nostri passiónem et beátam Vírginem ejus Matrem) assecútus, sed étiam doctrínæ, quam ad defensiónem Christiánæ religiónis, animárum proféctum, et ómnium theologórum, qui sacras lítteras scholástica méthodo tradidérunt, normam cælitus hausísse ex ejus libris ómnibus appáret.

After the death of Lanfranc, Archbishop of Canterbury, Anselm, whose teacher Lanfranc had formerly been, was driven by William II, King of England, supported by the entreaties of the clergy and people, though sorely against his own wishes to take upon him the government of that Church. Raised to that See he straightway set himself to reform the corrupt manners of the people, and, first by his word and example, and then by his writings and the Councils which he held, succeeded in restoring the ancient godliness and discipline of the Church. But when the aforesaid King William tried by force and threats to seize on the rights of the Church, Anselm withstood him as beseemed a Priest, and after that he had suffering the plundering of all his goods, and been sent into banishment, he betook himself to Rome to Urban II. There he was received with great worship, and won high praise for that in the Council of Bari, he maintained by countless proofs from Scripture and the holy Fathers, against the error of the Greeks, that the Holy Ghost proceedeth from the Son also. When William lived no more, his brother Henry I, King of England, called back Anselm thither, and there he fell asleep in the Lord. His is a name illustrious not for miracles only, nor for holiness (and indeed he had a wondrous love for his Lord who had suffered for him, and for the blessed Maiden Mother of the same our Lord), but also for the deep learning which he used for the defence of the Christian Religion and the good of souls. That wonderful knowledge of theology which he had, and which is shewn in all the books which he wrote, seemeth to have been given him from heaven for the teaching of all writers on the same subject, who have used what is called the Scholastic method.

Homilia sancti Anselmi Episcopi (ex III Nocturno Breviarii Benedictini)

Cur Deus homo?, commendatio operis: Quamvis post apostolos sancti patres et doctores nostri multi tot et tanta de fidei nostrae ratione dicant ad confutandum insipientiam et frangendum duritiam infidelium, et ad pascendum eos qui iam corde fide mundato eiusdem fidei ratione, quam post eius certitudinem debemus esurire, delectantur, ut nec nostris nec futuris temporibus ullum illis parem in veritatis contemplatione speremus: nullum tamen reprehendendum arbitror, si fide stabilitus in rationis eius indagine se voluierit exercere. Nam et illi, quia "breves dies hominis sunt" (Iob 14,5), non omnia quae possunt, si diutius vixissent, dicere potuerunt; et veritatis ratio tam ampla tamque profunda est, ut a mortalibus nequeat exhauriri; et dominus in ecclesia sua, cum qua se esse "usque ad consummationem saeculi" promittit, gratiae suae dona non desinit impertiri.

Succeeding the Apostles, many of our holy Fathers and holy teachers make very many significant points regarding the rational basis of our faith. They do so not only in order to confound the foolishness of unbelievers and to break through their hard-heartedness, but also in order to nourish those who, having hearts already cleansed by faith, delight in the rational basis of our faith a rational basis for which we ought to hunger once [we have] the certainty of faith. Although our holy Fathers make so many significant points that we do not expect either in our own day or in future times anyone to be equal to them in contemplating the truth, nevertheless if anyone who is steadfast in faith wants to engage in investigating the rational basis for his faith, I think he ought not to be reproached. For because "the days of man are short" the holy Fathers were not able to say all of the things which they could have said if they had lived longer. Moreover, the rational basis of truth is so extensive and so deep that it cannot be exhausted by mortals. Furthermore, within His Church, with which He promises to remain unto the end of the world, the Lord does not cease to impart the gifts of His grace.

Et ut alia taceam quibus sacra pagina nos ad investigandam rationem invitat: ubi dicit: "nisi credideritis, nos intelligetis" (Jes 7,9), aperte nos monet intentionem ad intellectum extendere, cum docet qualiter ad illum debeamus proficere. Denique quoniam inter fidem et speciem intellectum quem in hac vita capimus esse medium intelligo: quanto aliquis ad illum proficit, tanto eum propinquare speciei, ad quam omnes anhelamus, existimo. Hac igitur ego consideratione, licet sim homo parvae scientiae, confortatus, ad eorum quae credimus rationem intuendam, quantum superna gratia mihi dare dignatur, aliquantum conor assurgere; et cum aliquid quod prius non videbam reperio, id aliis libenter aperio, quatenus quid secure tenere debeam, alieno discam iudicio.

Strengthened, then, by these considerations, I endeavor (although I am a man of meager learning) to rise up a bit higher in order to behold (to the extent that heavenly grace deigns to grant me) the rationale for those doctrines which we believe. And when I find some point which I did not previously notice, I shall willingly disclose it to others, so that I may learn from another's judgment what I ought to believe confidently. Therefore, Pope Urban, my father and lord, you who are worthy of all Christians' loving reverence and reverential love, and whom God's providence has established as supreme pontiff within His Church: since I can present the enclosed treatise to no one else more rightly, I present it to the scrutiny of Your Holiness, so that by the authority of Your Holiness what is therein deserving of acceptance may be approved and what must be corrected may be amended.

Ex Ep. de Incarn. Verbi: Sed priusquam de quaestione disseram, aliquid praemittam adcompescendam praesumptionem eorum, qui nefanda temeritate audent disputare contra aliquid eorum quae fides Christiana confitetur, quoniam id intellectu capere nequeunt, et potius insipienti superbia iudicant nullatenus posse esse quod nequeunt intelligere, quam humili sapientia fateantur esse multa posse, quae ipsi non valeant comprehendere. Nullus quippe Christianus debet disputare, quomodo quod catholica ecclesia corde credit et ore confitetur non sit; sed semper eandem fidem indubitanter tenendo, amando et secundum illam vivendo humiliter quantum potest quaerere rationem quomodo sit. Si potest intelligere, deo gratias agat; si non potest, non immittat cornua ad ventilandum sed submittat caput ad venerandum.

But before I examine this question I will say something to curb the presumption of those who, with blasphemous rashness and on the ground that they cannot understand it, dare to argue against something which the Christian faith confesses—those who judge with foolish pride that what they are not able to understand is not at all possible, rather than acknowledging with humble wisdom that many things are possible which they are not able to comprehend. Indeed, no Christian ought to question the truth of what the Catholic Church believes in its heart and confesses with its mouth. Rather, by holding constantly and unhesitatingly to this faith, by loving it and living according to it he ought humbly, and as best he is able, to seek to discover the reason why it is true. If he is able to understand, then let him give thanks to God. But if he cannot understand, let him not toss his horns in strife but let him bow his head in reverence.


Mihi autem adhærére Deo bonum est, pónere in Dómino Deo spem meam: ut annúntiem omnes prædicatiónes tuas in portis fília Sion. Allelúja.

It is good for me to adhere to my God, to put my hope in my Lord, that I may declare all Thy praises in the gates of the daughter of Sion. Alleluia.


Hóstias tibi,Dómine, in odórem suavitátis offérimus; et præsta ut beáti Robérti mónitis et exemplis edócti, per sémitam mandatórum tuórum dilatáto corde currámus. Per Dominum.

We offer this sacrifice unto Thee, O Lord, for an odor of sweetness; grant that, taught by the instruction and example of blessed Robert, we may with enlarged heart run the way of Thy commandments. Through our Lord.


Vos estis lux mundi: sic lúceat lux vestra coram homínibus, ut vídeant ópera vestra bona, et gloríficent Patrem vestrum Qui in Cælis est. Allelúja.

You are the light of the world: so let your light shine before all men that they may see your good works and glorify your Father Who is in Heaven. Alleluia.


Oremus. Sacraméntas, quæ súmpsimus, Dómine, Deus noster, in nobis fóveant caritátis ardórem: quo beátus Robértus veheménter accénsus, pro Ecclésia tua se júgiter impendébat. Per Dominum.

May the sacraments which we have received, O Lord, our God, inflame us with that fire of love which ardently consumed blessed Robert and led him to spend himself continually for Thy Church.Through our Lord.


Sunday, April 20, 2008

Dominica Quarta post Pascha (Semiduplex)

Proprium Missae cum sermonibus
S. Thomae, S. Augustini, & Rev. Romanoski, FSSP.

Introitus (part./mp3): Cantáte Dómino cánticum novum, allelúia: quia mirabília fecit Dóminus, allelúia: ante conspéctum Géntium revelávit justítiam suam, allelúia, allelúia, allelúia. Ps. Salvábit sibi déxtera ejus: et bráchium sanctum ejus. V. Glória.

SING ye to the Lord a new canticle, alleluia; for the Lord hath done wonderful things, alleluia; He hath revealed His justice in the sight of the gentiles, alleluia, alleluia. Ps. 97, 1. His right hand hath wrought for Him salvation: and His arm is holy. V. Glory be.

Oratio: DEUS, QUI fidelium mentes unius efficis voluntatis: da populis tuis id amare quod praecipis, id desiderare quod promittis; ut inter mundanas varietates ibi nostra fixa sint corda, ubi vera sunt gaudia. Per Dominum.

O GOD, WHO dost make the minds of the faithful to be of one accord, grant Thy peoples that they may love what Thou commandest and desire what Thou dost promise, so that, amid the changing things of this world, our hearts may be set where true joys abide. Through Our Lord.

Léctio Epístolæ beáti Jacóbi Apóstoli (I. 17-21)

Caríssimi: Omne datum óptimum et omne donum perféctum desúrsum est, descéndens a Patre lúminum, apud quem non est transmutátio, nec vicissitúdinis obumbrátio. Voluntárie enim génuit nos verbo veritátis, ut simus inítium áliquod creatúræ ejus. Scitis, fratres mei dilectíssimi. Sit autem omnis homo velox ad audiéndum: tardus autem ad loquéndum, et tardus ad iram. Ira enim viri justítiam Dei non operátur. Propter quod abjiciéntes omnem immundítiam, et abundántiam malítiæ, in mansuetúdine suscípite ínsitum verbum, quod potest salváre ánimas vestras.

DEARLY beloved, Every best gift, and every perfect gift is from above; coming down from the Father of lights, with Whom there is no change, nor shadow of alteration. For of His own will hath He begotten us by the word of truth, that we might be some beginning of His creatures. You know, my dearest brethren; and let every man be swift to hear, but slow to speak, and slow to anger. For the anger of man worketh not the justice of God. Wherefore, casting away all uncleanness, and abundance of naughtiness, with meekness receive the engrafted word, which is able to save your souls.

Alleluia (part./mp3):

Alleluia, Alleluia. V. Ps. 117, 16: Dextera Domini fecit virtutem: dextera Domini exaltavit me.

Alleluia (part./mp3):

Alleluia V. Rom. 6, 9: Christus resiirgens ex mortuis iam non moritur: mors illi ultra non dominabitur. Alleluia.

Alleluia, alleluia. V.: The right hand of the Lord hath wrought strength, the right hand of the Lord hath exalted me. Alleluia. V.: (Rom. 6. 9). Christ, rising from the dead, dieth now no more: death shall no more have dominion over Him. Alleluia.

+Sequentia S. Evangelii Secundum Joannem (XVI, 5-14)

In illo témpore: Dixit Jesus discípulis suis: Vado ad eum, qui misit me: et nemo ex vobis intérrogat me: Quo vadis? Sed quia hæc locútus sum vobis, tristítia implévit cor vestrum. Sed ego veritátem dico vobis: éxpedit vobis ut ego vadam: si enim non abíero, Paráclitus non véniet ad vos: si autem abíero, mittam eum ad vos. Et cum vénerit ille, árguet mundum de peccáto, et de justítia, et de judício. De peccáto quidem, quia non credidérunt in me: de justítia vero, quia ad Patrem vado, et jam non vidébitis me: de judício autem, quia princeps hujus mundi jam judicátus est. Adhuc multa hábeo vobis dicere: sed non potéstis portáre modo. Cum autem vénerit ille Spíritus veritátis, docébit vos omnem veritátem. Non enim loquétur a semetípso: sed quæcúmque áudiet, loquétur, et quæ ventúra sunt, annuntiábit vobis. Ille me clarificábit: quia de meo accípiet, et annuntiábit vobis.

AT THAT time, Jesus said to His disciples, I go to Him that sent Me; and none of you asketh Me, Whither goest Thou? But because I have spoken these things to you, sorrow hath filled your heart. But I tell you the truth: it is expedient to you that I go; for if I go not, the Paraclete will not come to you, but if I go, I will send Him to you. And when He is come, He will convince the world of sin, and of justice, and of judgment. Of sin, because they believed not in Me; and of justice, because I go to the Father, and you shall see Me no longer; and of judgment, because the prince of this world is already judged. I have yet many things to say to you, but you cannot bear them now; but when He, the Spirit of truth, is come, He will teach you all truth; for He shall not speak of Himself; but what things so ever He shall hear, He shall speak, and the things that are to come He shall show you. He shall glorify Me because He shall receive of Mine, and shall show it to you.

Sermo S. Thomae de Dominica Secunda post Oct. Paschae, ex Epistola.

Sit omnis homo velox ad audiendum, tardus autem ad loquendum, Jacobi 1. Apostolus Jacobus monet nos in istis verbis ut proniores simus ad audiendum quam ad loquendum: et debent nos ad hoc movere tria. (1) Primo naturae documentum; (2) secundo nocumentum; (3) tertio emolumentum.

  • (1) Natura tripliciter docet nos ut plus audiamus quam loquamur. (a) Primo, quia natura dedit homini duplex instrumentum audiendi, et tantum unum loquendi; ut hoc ipso ostendatur quod in duplo homo debet audire quam loqui. (b) Secundo, quia natura dedit pluribus animalibus auditum, loquelam non dedit nisi homini animali rationali, ut ex hoc ostenderetur quod locutio debet esse rationalis. Col. 4: sermo vester semper sit sale conditus. (c) Tertio, quia natura dedit instrumenta audiendi semper aperta, sed instrumentum loquendi clausit sub duobus claustris vel muris: homo enim semper habet aures apertas, sed linguam clausam sub labiis et dentibus: est enim lingua quasi mala monacha, et ideo reclusit illam Deus sub pluribus claustris. Michaeae 8: custodi claustra oris tui.
  • (2) Circa secundum sciendum, quod triplex nocumentum provenit ex multa locutione. (a) Primo malum culpae. Prov. 10: in multiloquio non deerit peccatum. (b) Secundo malum poenae. Eccl. 20: qui multis utitur verbis, affligit animam suam. (c) Tertio malum infamiae. Prov. 18: qui respondet antequam audiat, stultum se esse demonstrat, et dignum confusione. De his tribus Jac. 3: lingua enim est universitas iniquitatis; ecce primum: lingua est inquietum malum, plena veneno mortifero; ecce secundum: lingua constituitur in membris nostris, quae maculat totum corpus; ecce tertium.
  • (3) Circa tertium notandum, quod triplex utilitas provenit homini qui multum audit et parum loquitur. (a) Primo bona gratiae. Eccl. 32: audi tacens, et pro reverentia accedet tibi bona gratia. (b) Secundo bona sapientiae. Eccl. 6: si inclinaveris aurem tuam, excipies doctrinam. (c) Tertio jucunditas mentis et tranquillitas. Prov. 31: qui custodit os suum et linguam suam, custodit ab angustiis animam suam et cetera.

Homilía sancti Augustíni Episcopi, Super Evangelium (ex II Nocturno).

Cum Dóminus Jesus prædixísset discípulis suis persecutiónes, quas passuri erant post ejus abscessum, subjunxit atque ait : Hæc autem vobis ab inítio non dixi, quia vobíscum eram : nunc autem vado ad eum, qui me misit. Ubi primum vidéndum est, utrum eis futuras non prædixerit ante passiónes. Sed alii tres Evangelistæ satis eum prædixisse ista demonstrant, antequam ventum esset ad cœnam : qua peracta, secúndum Joánnem ista locútus est, ubi ait : Hæc autem vobis ab inítio non dixi, quia vobíscum eram.

The Lord Jesus told his disciples what things they should suffer after that he was gone away from them, and then (as John recordeth) he said : These things I said not unto you at the beginning, because I was with you ; but now I go my way to him that sent me. The first thing to be noticed here is, whether he had not already told them of their future sufferings. That he had done so amply before the night of the Last Supper, is testified by the other three Evangelists ; but according to John, it was when that Supper was ended , that he said : These things I said not unto you at the beginning, because I was with you.

An forte hinc ista sólvitur quæstio, quia et illi eum narrant passióni próximum fuisse cum hæc diceret? Non ergo ab inítio, quando cum illis erat : quia jam discessurus, jamque ad Patrem perrecturus hæc dixit. Et ídeo étiam secúndum illos Evangelistas verum est, quod hic dictum est : Hæc autem vobis ab inítio non dixi. Sed quid ágimus de fide Evangélii secúndum Matthæum, qui hæc eis a Dómino non solum cum jam Pascha esset cum discípulis cœnatúrus, imminénte passióne, verum et ab inítio denuntiáta esse commemorat ; ubi primum nominátim duódecim exprimúntur Apóstoli, et ad ópera divina mittúntur?

Are we then to try to loose the knot of this difficulty by asserting that, according to these three Evangelists, it was on the eve of the passion, albeit before the Supper, that he had said these things unto them, and therefore not at the beginning, when he was with them, but when he was about to leave them, and go his way to the Father? And in this way we might reconcile the truthfulness of what this Evangelist saith here : These things I said not unto you at the beginning : with the truthfulness of the other three. But this explanation is rendered impossible by the Gospel according to Matthew, who telleth us how that the Lord spake to his Apostles concerning their sufferings to come, not only when he was on the point of eating the passover with them, but at the very beginning, when the names of the twelve were first given, and they were sent forth to do the work of God.

Quid sibi ergo vult, quod hic ait : Hæc autem vobis ab inítio non dixi, quia vobíscum eram : nisi quia ea, quæ hic dicit de Spíritu Sancto, quod sit ventúrus ad eos, et testimónium perhibiturus, quando mala illa passuri sunt, hæc ab inítio eis non dixit, quia cum ipsis erat? Consolator ergo ille, vel advocátus (utrumque enim interpretátur, quod erat Græce Paráclitus), Christo abscedénte fuerat necessarius : et ídeo de illo non dixerat ab inítio, quando cum illis erat, quia ejus præséntia consolabántur.

It would seem then that when he said : These things I said not unto you at the beginning, because I was with you : he meant by These Things, not the sufferings, which they were to bear for his sake, but his promise of the Comforter who should come to them, and testify while they suffered. This Comforter then, or Advocate (for the Greek word Paraclete may be interpreted in both senses), would be needful to them when they saw Christ no more ; and therefore it was that Christ spake not of the Holy Spirit at the beginning while he himself was with his disciples, because his visible presence was then their sufficient Comfort.

A Sermon by Rev. Jonathan Romanoski, FSSP.

But when he the Spirit of truth is come, he will teach you all truth.

Today we celebrate the 4th Sunday after Easter, a time in which we are celebrating our rebirth, reaping for 50 days what we had sown throughout Lent, striving now not to resume our vices and worldly attachments, but rather to make use of the things of this world with the detachment we have gained, able now to enjoy them as a reflection of God, rather than cling to them as a distraction from God.

For “love rejoices in truth.” And the truth is, as St. Ignatius has us meditate on, as the first principle of the spiritual life, is that all things are mere means, and have only one purpose in life- to lead us toward God and to be employed in His service. Today Our Lord continues to prepare us in this spirit, preparing us for his Holy Spirit, who is, the gospel tells us, the Spirit of Truth. Let us keep this in mind, as we hear much today of devotion to the Holy Spirit, but very little of devotion to the Truth. Such is the measure by which we are to judge such manifestations - for one can speak in the tongues of angels yet sound as nothing more than a clanging gong. One can prophecy and work miracles, yet know not the Lord. Better a word of doctrine in understanding, than 5000 in an unknown tongue, the Scriptures tell us.

But I do not suppose there are many of you here prey to such an error, and so I wish to focus today on what true devotion to the Holy Ghost consists in- devotion to the Truth, both in study, which is necessary so as to be virtuous, yet which is much neglected in our day, and the root of our present evils, St. Pius X tells us, and most of all in a life manifesting the truth of God, “in whom there is no change nor shadow of alteration.” When St. Augustine was asked what are the ways of God, he responded, “I would tell you that the first is humility, the second is humility and the third is humility.”

So what is humility? Perhaps the easiest definition is the one given us by St. Teresa who said, “Humility is truth.” The truth above all that God is He who is and we are that which is not. The truth that everything comes from God, and everything depends upon God at every moment. “In Him we live and move and have our being;” that “it is God at work within us both to will and to accomplish;” that “even our first thoughts are not our own;” “that everything is grace.”

Secondly, that in light of this infinite gift, we have offended God innumerable times, and have deserved the everlasting pains of hell, which as I mentioned last week, quoting St. Thomas, are still less than what justice calls for. And despite all of this, God continues to have mercy on us, sustain us in being and offer again His divine friendship by grace, without which “we can do nothing.”

To be humble is thus to be always cognizant of this gratuity, of the underserved nature of every gift our nothingness and sinfulness has received. But note there are two sides to this--the utter gratuity of God toward us, as well as the actual gift received from God. Let us now consider this second point--the gift received. To be humble is also to acknowledge and take great care of the gifts received from God, for this is true as well. Remember the man who buried his talent so as to hide it and not lose it. Was he humble? Was the Lord pleased? Not at all, as he did not multiply it in the Lord’s service. The light of the Lord is not to be put under a bushel, but upon a candlestick to shine forth in good works that others may glorify the Father in heaven. Nor would it be humble to refer to the gift of our divine and catholic faith as your own humble opinion. This would be rather the heights of arrogance, motivated by cowardliness. Woe to those who will stand before God on the last day having called Him an opinion.

So we see, that, as with any virtue, two things must be kept in balance. And, accordance with truth, is how we are to distinguish the virtue of humility, from a mere timid or shy disposition. St. Thomas Aquinas, that most astute observer of human nature, tells us that by nature we are determined or inclined toward one thing. This refers to our temperament or emotional disposition, which you can see very clearly in a child of say three years of age. They might be very eager and energetic or more reserved, shy, phlegmatic, etc. This is the nature that Providence has given them, which they will have to in turn bring into balance and govern according to reason, throughout their life. And the sign that one has the balance of humility is that they know when to keep quiet, and when to speak up, when to undertake great works, and when to refrain from seeking things too high for them. The rule is truth, and what is called for in the various circumstances we face and not a mere emotional disposition. And so let us never mistake pusillanimity, littleness of soul, for the little way of child like humility, which is filled with absolute confidence in God’s grace, and is indeed bold in His service. For the Scriptures tell us, “God has not given us a spirit of fear, but of power and love,” His very own Spirit, which was sent “to convince the world of sin, and of justice, and of judgment” and to preach God’s truth “upon the housetops.”

But first we must make sure we know God’s truth, if we wish to proceed to let it shine forth in word and deed. And how are we to humbly proceed in learning it? Remember that original sin inclines us in the opposite direction, being as it was a sin of conscience deciding to call good evil and evil good, claiming an absolute autonomy to the judgment of one’s conscience, rather than subordinating it to God revealing, and in fact, a very feigned conscience rejecting God only to subordinate itself to one’s lower desires. As the Philosopher also said, “every man judges in accordance with his disposition.” The melancholic thinks others too superficial, the choleric thinks others too weak, the sanguine thinks others too unfriendly, the rigorous judges all to the left of him as lax, the gluttonous judges the one who fasts as extreme, etc., and in all of this we make ourselves the norm, and perfect model of balance and virtue. But note well, to make oneself the absolute judge of truth, is to commit the unforgivable sin against the Holy Ghost, as such a one will never be inclined to repent, as there is no law above him, to convince him of sin.

So how can we make sure to align our judgment to the truth? We must begin to study the truth about the faith and about the virtues. Now to humbly study truth is not to proceed with naïveté, listening to anyone or reading any book, but rather to listen to what God reveals through the Church. Note how God sets things up too, wherein we do not simply assent to what He reveals, but as it is proposed to us through the Church. We have humans to submit to in this as well, and how fitting, so as to humble our pride. And this is where many stumble, who would prefer sola Scriptura--interpreted 'infallibly' of course by themselves. Or even a danger in our circles of a sola Traditio, as if it were comprehensible apart from the Magisterium. Such a notion would be contrary to the very meaning of tradition- as that which is handed on. Which is to say there needs to be someone handing it on, having first received it. Tradition is not simply ancient writings--as there are teachings in some of the Fathers which are ancient, but which were not accepted by the Church, nor handed down in Catholic Tradition. We must remember this especially in our time of crisis, where there is not found such a clear resound of tradition in our shepherds, in which we are tempted to resolve things by our own judgment, which can only be resolved by the Church. In patience we will possess our soul. Scripture and Tradition are indeed the rule of faith, but only the remote rule, and there is no way to preserve them incorrupt or understand them infallibly unless the Church, the proximate rule of faith, teaches it to us, telling us what must be believed and how it is to be understood. Hence the importance of reading the great encyclicals, like Pascendi, Rerum novarum, Casti Conubii, etc., to find tradition explained and applied to our day.

Humility inclines us not only to accept infallible teachings, but the more probable teaching as well. As the Scriptures command us “Lean not on thy own prudence.” St. Thomas points this out for us, when he writes, “a man of little science is more certain about what he hears on the authority of an expert in science, than about what is apparent to him according to his own reason: and much more is a man certain about what he hears from God, Who cannot be deceived, than about what he sees with his own reason, which can be mistaken.” This is of course perfectly reasonable, that we should feel more certain about the judgment of those wiser than us than our own. Yet how often do we act irrationally. I recall a story from a fellow seminarian about a talk he gave on the use of the chapel veil to young ladies, who were glad to hear it being as it is based on the Word of God Himself, and the constant tradition of the Church, and something which highlights the dignity of a woman and the sense of mystery around her, as only that which is holy is veiled, like the tabernacle, or the chalice. Yet one lady there caused quite a scene, rejecting such a proposal. Why? Because she thought it didn’t accord with Catholic tradition, or Sacred Scripture, or because the saints had disapproved of it? Not at all. She simply didn’t like it, and was willing to subject the wisdom of God, and the saints, to her desire, rather than vice versa. That is just one example of a thousand in our life. This is our pride. We decide first what we want and then we arrange our arguments accordingly, rather than starting with what is true, and with what the saints teach, which is the way of sanctity, recognizing the saints as our norm, as the very name canonized indicates to us--those who have been made a canon / a rule for us. Yet how often do we look at them and think, well that’s a little too unbalanced, that’s a bit extreme, not seeking how to gradually be conformed to their virtue, (and not their miracles, which are more admirable than imitable) but holding as a norm our own lukewarmness and measly knowledge of things divine, as the perfect balance to be imitated by all.

Let us rather conform ourselves to truth, in word and deed, imitating He who is Truth, following the example of the Spirit of Truth operative in the lives of the Church’s saints. This is the very mystery of Pentecost for which we are preparing--conformity to Truth. May we be found ready for His coming, as St. Therese was, who, when asked at her death if she had attained humility, responded, “it appears to me that humility is truth. I know not whether I am humble, but I know that I see the truth in all things.”

Virgin Most Humble: Pray for us.


Ant. ad Offertorium (
Ps. 65, 1-2 & 16: Iubilate Deo, universa terra, psalmum dicite nomini eius: venite, et audite, et narrabo vobis, omnes qui timetis Deum, quanta fecit Dominus animae meae, alleluia.

Shout with joy to God, all the earth, sing ye a psalm to His Name: come and hear, and I will tell you, all ye that fear God, what great things the Lord hath done for my soul, alleluia.


Deus, qui nos, per huius sacrificii veneranda commercia, unius summae divinitatis participes effecisti: praesta, quaesumus; ut, sicut tuam cognoscimus veritatem, sic earn dignis moribus assequamur. Per Dominum.

O God, who by the holy intercourse of this Sacrifice dost make us partakers of the One Supreme Godhead: grant, we beseech Thee, that as we know Thy truth, so we may follow it by worthy lives. Through our Lord.

(Praefatio paschalis, in qua dicitur: in hoc potissimum glorisius praedicare.)

It it truly meet and just, right and for our salvation, at all times to praise Thee, O Lord, but more gloriously especially this day when Christ our Pasch was sacrificed. For He is the Lamb Who hath taken away the sins of the world: Who by dying hath destroyed our death: and by rising again hath restored us to life. And therefore with Angels and Archangels, with Thrones and Dominations, and with all the hosts of the heavenly army, we sing the hymn of Thy glory, evermore saying...

Ant. ad Communionem (partitura):
Io. 16, 8: Cum venerit Paraclitus Spiritus veritatis, ille arguet mundum de peccato, et de iustitia, et de iudicio, alleluia, alleluia.

When the Paraclete, the Spirit of truth, is come, He will convince the world of sin, and of justice and of judgment, alleluia, alleluia.

Adesto nobis, Domine Deus noster: ut per haec, quae fideliter sumpsimus, et purgemur a vitiis, et a periculis omnibus eruamur. Per Dominum nostrum Iesum Christum, Filium tuum: Qui tecum vivit et regnat in unitate.

Be present with us, O Lord our God, that by means of these things which we have received in faith, we may be cleansed from our sins and also delivered from all dangers. Through our Lord.

Thursday, April 17, 2008

Baptism of Desire, An Interview


Cekada, Baptism of Desire and Theological Principles. This is an excellent summary of the basic principles that one must have in mind in order to be able to comprehend the issue, especially how this doctrine is founded upon the sources of revelation. I assume these principles in the following interview.


The Sacrae Theologiae Summa, a sophisticated, four-volume Jesuit Manual of dogmatic theology published by the BAC in 1950 (henceforth, “BAC”); excellent for the finer points of Scholastic theology. (The set is out of print, but you can obtain a PDF version through the Ite ad Thomam Out of Print Library.)
Ludwig Ott, Fundamentals of Catholic Dogma, a simpler English manual that is in print; good for easy reference of finer points (henceforth, “Ott”). You can buy a copy through TAN Books.
St. Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologiae, essential for the more fundamental points (henceforth, “ST”).
Denzinger, Enchiridion Symbolorum (henceforth, “D”).
Sacred Scripture (will be cited by book).


1. What are all the necessary requirements that must be fulfilled in order for a human person to be saved in the New Covenant?
Ultimately, what is required for salvation or ‘glory’ is final perseverance, i.e., that we persevere until the end of our lives in the state of Sanctifying Grace. Now, Sanctifying Grace is not a ‘means’ to salvation or glory; grace is, in a sense, salvation or ‘glory’ itself, or that which becomes glory in eternity: this is why St. Thomas calls grace “the seed of Glory” (semen gloriae); Cf., ST I.95.1 arg. 6. In this sense, one could say that final perseverance (ending our lives with Sanctifying Grace) is necessary for salvation with absolute (or intrinsic) necessity, and not merely with hypothetical necessity. Even God could not save us without Sanctifying Grace, for that is what it means for Him to save us: to give us Sanctifying Grace and bring it to consummation (gloria est gratia consummata). However, all else is a means to Sanctifying Grace, including Baptism and membership in the Church. These means are necessary with a hypothetical necessity of means, that is, their necessity is not intrinsic, but founded solely on God’s decision to establish such an order. This is the doctrine of the Church as expressed by the traditional Manuals of Scholastic Theology (Cf. BAC, v. 4, De sacramentis, §66; Ott, p. 356): Baptism by water (baptismus fluminis) is necessary with a hypothetical (not absolute) necessity of means since the promulgation of the Gospel—when the Sacramental order was established—for acquiring the state of Sanctifying Grace (justification). Hence, justification and salvation are not identical with the Sacrament of Baptism, but are only an effect of the Sacrament, an effect that hypothetically can come about without the ordinary cause. God transcends the sacramental order and He can act, if he so desires, extraordinarily. Just as he saved the Old Testament Patriarchs without Baptism, so even after the promulgation of the Gospel, He can, in extraordinary circumstances, allow that Sanctifying Grace be obtained without the reception of the Sacrament, e.g., if there is the desire of the Sacrament. It is only within the sacramental order that He has decided to save us in this manner, but he is ultimately beyond this order and can act outside of it. God, simply out of his good pleasure, and not due to any intrinsic necessity, decided that Baptism would be the ordinary means to salvation.
2. When during the era of the New Covenant would you say these prerequisites became necessary? Pentecost?
“Since the promulgation of the Gospel,” as the Manuals teach. This is based on Trent’s statement that, “after the promulgation of the Gospel, [justification] cannot occur without the bath of regeneration (i.e., Baptism) or its desire.” (post Evangelium promulgatum sine lavacro regenerationis aut ejus voto fieri non potest. D 796).
3. What is required for membership in the church?
The teaching of the Manuals is this: “The members of the Church are those who have validly received the Sacrament of Baptism and who are not separated from the unity of the confession of the Faith, and from the unity of the lawful communion of the Church.” This is a sententia certa (cf. Ott, p. 309).

Thus, three conditions are necessary, according to the Manuals:

a) Valid reception of the Sacrament of Baptism.
b) The profession of the truth Faith.
c) Participation in the Communion of the Church.

Cf. Pius XII, Mystici Corporis (D 2286):
Actually only those are to be numbered among the members of the Church who have received the laver of regeneration and profess the true faith, and have not, to their misfortune, separated themselves from the structure of the Body, or for very serious sins have not been excluded by lawful authority. “For in one spirit,” says the Apostle, “were we all baptized into one Body, whether Jews or Gentiles, whether bond or free" [ 1 Cor. 12:13]. So, just as in the true community of the faithful of Christ there is only one Body, one Spirit, one Lord, and one Baptism, so there can be only one faith [cf. Eph. 4:5]; and so he who refuses to hear the Church, as the Lord bids "let him be as the heathen and publican" [cf. Matt. 18:17]. Therefore, those who are divided from one another in faith or in government cannot live in the unity of such a body, and in its one divine spirit.
4. Does baptism of desire make one a member of the Catholic Church?
No. (Cf. Ott, p. 311).
5. Is it possible to be saved without receiving any of the sacraments?
Extraordinarily, given the Omnipotence of God and his transcendence over the Sacramental order, it is possible. (Some examples are St. Dismas—the Good Thief—, St. Emerentiana, St. Genesius, St. Victor, and St. Rogatian; Cf. their entries in the Roman Martyrology and their acta. The Manuals generally acknowledge that their martyrdoms are examples of “Baptism of Blood.” See also my post on these martyrs.)

6. What is absolutely necessary for a valid baptism?
Proper form and matter, a valid subject (the receiver of the Sacrament) and the intention to “do what the Church does.” (Cf. Ott, pp. 343, 350-360.)
7. Are baptism of desire and baptism of blood sacraments?
No. They can be extraordinary substitutes for the Sacrament of Baptism (Cf. ST III.66.11 ad 3).
8. Is there only one type of baptism?
Yes. The other two are “baptisms” only analogically. In this sense, one can say that there are three “baptisms”—and this is why many of the Doctors and Fathers speak of “three baptisms” (cf. ST III.66.11). However, strictly speaking there is only one Sacrament of Baptism, and this is why the Nicene Creed says confiteor unum baptisma in remissionem peccatorum, and why St. Paul speaks of “one Faith, one Baptism” (Eph. 4:5).
9. What is baptism of desire? What are the prerequisites for baptism of desire?
“Baptism of desire” is the desire of the Sacrament of Baptism. (The Latin is not baptismum voti, but votum baptismi.) You must have an intellect and a will (i.e., you must be human), and you must have reached the age of reason (i.e., you must be able to choose freely) to be able to desire the Sacrament of Baptism. The Manuals also teach that the desire of baptism must be conjoined with an act of perfect charity to be a means of salvation.
10. Does baptism of desire imprint on one’s soul the baptismal character?
No. (Cf. Ott, p. 357; see ST III.66.11 & 12.)
11. Is salvation attainable by baptism of desire?
Yes, extraordinarily, as I explained above, in my answer to question 1.
12. What is justification?
As is taught in the definition of Trent, justification is “the translation from that condition in which man is born as the son of the first Adam into the state of grace and adoption among the children of God through the Second Adam, Jesus Christ, our Savior” (Translatio ab eo statu, in quo homo nascitur filius primi Adæ, in statum gratiæ et adoptionis filiorum Dei, per secundum Adam Jesum Christum Salvatorem nostrum. D 796). In other words, it is the passage from a state of sin (original or mortal) to the state of Sanctifying Grace.

13. Is justification attainable by baptism of desire?
See question 1.
14. Is making a distinction between salvation and justification necessary in the discussion of baptism of desire and blood?
I don’t see how that distinction is relevant to the issue of Baptism of Desire. It is true: salvation and justification must not be confused, for they are clearly distinct concepts. In this life, we have not yet been saved, but if we are in the state of Sanctifying Grace, we have been justified. Salvation presupposes justification, but not vice-versa. Salvation includes justification, but is more than justification. The desire of the Sacrament of Baptism can be the means through which God not only justifies, but saves, a soul.
15. Some argue that so-called “Feeneyites” conveniently tried to force a distinction between salvation and justification, why would they not affirm that salvation and justification are indeed the same?
I’m not familiar with their argument. If they make that distinction, then they are right in making it. However, I do not see how they would use it to prove their point.
16. What does the sacrament of baptism cause or effect that allows a soul to be saved?
Only sacraments work ex opere operato (cf. Ott, p. 328-30), and the desire of a Sacrament is not a sacrament. Therefore, the desire itself of a Sacrament causes nothing in the soul ex opere operato. Rather, the desire of a Sacrament, particularly the desire of Baptism, works ex opere operantis (cf. Ott, p. 357). That is, there is nothing intrinsic about someone’s desire for Baptism that confers Grace. It is God alone who, out of his good pleasure and in order to show his goodness, has mercy on a soul and confers upon it Sanctifying Grace, along with a perfect charity, despite the soul not having received the Sacrament.
17. Do baptism of desire and blood cause or effect everything caused by water baptism?

No. Its only effect is justification/salvation, i.e., the bestowal of Sanctifying Grace and the forgiveness of sins. The Sacrament has effects that these do not have, for instance, the Baptismal Character and incorporation into the Church.
17. What is your position on vicarious baptism of desire?
On the one hand, the doctrine of the desire of baptism in general has always been taught almost unanimously by the Witnesses of Tradition (the consensus of the Fathers, the consensus of the Doctors and Theologians, and the consensus of the Faithful). I defend, but it is not because I particularly like it or because I’m a universalist who believes everyone will be saved. Frankly, I do not even like talking about this doctrine—it is so easily misinterpreted and perverted—and I think more people are in hell than we can imagine (cf. Mt 7:13-14). I believe and defend this doctrine because it is part of Sacred Tradition—despite the fact that it has been much abused, and that in our age it is the other side of the story, the necessity of baptism for salvation, that must be emphasized.

On the other hand, however, this is not the case with the ‘doctrine’ (or better yet theory) of vicarious baptism of desire. That theory has not been taught so unanimously and, therefore, I have no sufficient reason to believe it. In fact, I am even suspicious of it. It seems that the only reason anyone would want to believe in such a thing is that one thinks it would be unjust for God to send to hell (viz., limbo) the soul of an unborn infant. This reasoning presupposes a misconception of both the nature of limbo and the justice of God.

Not only is this theory not taught by the Church or by the Witnesses of Tradition; it has even received an implicit papal censure. Cajetan defended this theory in his commentary to Aquinas’ Summa; but when Pope S. Pius V published that Commentary, he removed Cajetan’s defense of vicarious baptism of desire, implicitly disapproving of the theory. (Cf. Catholic Encyclopedia, ‘Baptism’: “It is true that some Catholic writers (as Cajetan, Durandus, Biel, Gerson, Toletus, Klee) have held that infants may be saved by an act of desire on the part of their parents, which is applied to them by some external sign, such as prayer or the invocation of the Holy Trinity; but Pius V, by expunging this opinion, as expressed by Cajetan, from that author's commentary on St. Thomas, manifested his judgment that such a theory was not agreeable to the Church’s belief.”)
18. The Saint Benedict Center literature utilizes syllogisms in defending the truth of the faith. For example, sacraments are necessary for salvation. And that water is necessary for baptism to be valid. Therefore water, reason would logically conclude, argue the “Feeneyites”, is necessary for salvation. Some argue that this is a fallacy in logic. Is this syllogism valid or not? Explain? What fallacy has been committed?
I do not detect a fallacy here. It is a dogma of faith that the Sacrament of Baptism is necessary for salvation with a necessity of means. Now, obviously, the matter of the sacrament, water, is an essential part of the sacrament. Therefore, it follows that the matter of the sacrament, water, is necessary for salvation with a necessity of means as well.

However, this does not bind God. The necessity of baptism is a hypothetical necessity of means—it is the means that God has established within the sacramental order. In other words, given the sacramental order that God has instituted, Baptism is the way we are saved. However, he is not bound to act within this order. He can act extraordinarily if He so chooses. Hence, the Fathers, Theologians and Doctors, Catechisms, etc., etc., teach that the Sacrament of Baptism (“baptism of water”) can be replaced by the desire of baptism or by martyrdom.
19. How much weight does this doctrine of baptism of desire carry? Would the position of baptism of desire be correct by categorizing it as a tolerated theologians opinion? Should Catholics not tolerate the baptism of desire doctrine?
No, it is not a mere theological opinion. Some, but not all, theologians, such as St. Alphonsus Liguori, teach that it is de fide, which means it is part of our faith and, hence, denying it would amount to heresy. Others, however, teach that it is a sententia proxima fidei (a doctrine that is proximate to the faith), i.e., a truth that is implicit in the Sources of Revelation (i.e., Scripture or Tradition). Hence, it is at least implicit in the Sources. (See my post on the notae theologicae.) It is especially seen in Trent: “after the promulgation of the Gospel, [justification] cannot occur without the bath of regeneration (i.e., Baptism) or its desire” (post Evangelium promulgatum sine lavacro regenerationis aut ejus voto fieri non potest. D 796).

Further, the Magisterium teaches us that we must believe not only those things that are taught by the Pope and the extraordinary Magisterium, but also that which is taught by the ordinary Magisterium and, therefore, unanimously taught by the Theologians as divinely revealed (all ecclesiastically appointed theologians throughout the ages, especially the Doctors of the Church):
“For even if it were a matter concerning that subjection which is to be manifested by an act of divine faith, nevertheless, it would not have to be limited to those matters which have been defined by express decrees of the ecumenical Councils, or of the Roman Pontiffs and of this See, but would have to be extended also to those matters which are handed down as divinely revealed by the ordinary teaching power of the whole Church spread throughout the world, and therefore, by universal and common consent are held by Catholic theologians to belong to faith.” Tuas Libenter (1863), D 1683).
The doctrine of baptism of desire/blood is a primary example of such doctrines handed. It is implicit in Trent and taught by all Theologians.

Hence, it is not the doctrine of baptism of desire that is an “opinion that is to be tolerated” (sententia tolerata) but the denial of this doctrine. In other words, the doctrine of baptism of desire is by far more certain to be part of Divine Revelation and enjoys far more ecclesiastical approval than its opposite. Hence, it is the opposite doctrine (the denial of baptism of desire) that is the sententia tolerata—tolerated, that is, until it is condemned, but for now it has not been explicitly condemned.

20. The Society of Saint Pius X says that as long as one dies in sanctifying grace one can be saved? Is there anything else needed? Please respond.

See my reply to question 1.
21. Is it necessary for salvation to possess the baptismal character? Would you argue that the extraordinary Magisterium of the Church would never define that the character is necessary for salvation in light of the fact that desire of baptism suffices for salvation?

The character is necessary in the same sense that the Sacrament itself is necessary. Baptism, including the Baptismal Character, is the means to salvation within the sacramental order. However, as I explained above, God can act outside of this order. Hence, just as the Magisterium has already defined that the Sacrament itself is necessary for salvation, so it may define that the Character in particular is necessary for salvation—necessary with a necessity of means. Such a definition would be true and would not contradict the doctrine on the desire of baptism.
22. If one establishes a sound conclusion that God cannot contradict Himself then how can He set the law that He Himself told us “unless a man be born again of water and the Holy Spirit, he cannot enter into the kingdom of God” and then go back on His word and let other people into Heaven that have not been baptized sacramentally?

This question is an instance of the informal fallacy commonly called the “Complex Question.” The fallacy of the “Complex Question” consists in asking a question that assumes something not granted by the audience. In this case, the question assumes that there is a contradiction between John 3:5 and baptism of desire/blood. However, the whole point here is that there is no such contradiction: whereas what Scripture teaches (John 3:5) is true within the sacramental order, what Tradition teaches (baptism of desire/blood) is true extraordinarily, i.e., outside of this order. Scripture and Tradition cannot contradict each other because they are expressions of the same Divine Revelation.
23. It is argued that God need not bind Himself by His own laws, and thus He can operate beyond the structure of John 3:5. Could not God also operate justly within the structure of John 3:5 interpreting this passage rigidly? In other words, could not God always provide water for His elect ordinarily or extraordinarily?

Yes, He could supply Sacramental Baptism to all the elect; but He could also not supply it and still grant eternal salvation. This is exactly what Sacred Tradition affirms by teaching the doctrine of baptism of desire.
24. Does baptism of desire fulfill canon 861 (if anyone shall say that baptism is optional, that is, not necessary for salvation: let him be anathema) and if so how? Does this canon refer to baptism only as a sacrament and not a sacramental substitute?

I don’t understand this question. If you are asking whether someone who teaches baptism of desire is anathema, the answer is no, for to teach this is not to teach that the Sacrament of Baptism is optional. (Otherwise St. Alphonsus Liguori, who taught Baptism of desire as de fide, would not be a saint or a Doctor of the Church, but anathema, and the Church who canonized him and proclaimed him a Doctor would not be infallible.) That this canon does not intend to deny the truth of the teaching on baptism of desire is most evident in the very words of the Council of Trent cited above, aut ejus voto (D 796).
25. Consider the case of two settler children who were set to be baptized the next day by a priest. During the night, the village was raided and the children escaped to a nearby river where the brother and sister hid. The brother then remembered the lesson that the priest had told them one day, that anyone can baptize with ordinary water. So in an attempt to baptize the sister, the boy emerged from cover and raced for the river but was shot and killed by an arrow before he reached the water. The sister was also killed in her attempt in reaching the river. So they both were killed without visibly receiving the sacrament of baptism. Is it possible that through their desire to be baptized, they were justified and thus admitted entrance into heaven? Is it also possible that God could have provided the water baptism for the children in an extraordinary manner?

I suppose both are possible, due to God’s omnipotence. Baptism of desire is possible, provided that they were within the age of reason—although even then, God could miraculously grant a young child the use of reason, as He did to Our Lord and to Our Lady. The extraordinary provision of Sacramental Baptism is also possible, although it must be kept in mind that for the Sacrament to be valid, real, natural water must be used (not some sort of “spiritual water”). If real water is not used, then real (i.e., sacramental) Baptism is not possible, for this is part of the essence of Baptism—again water is necessary with absolute necessity for the Sacrament to be administered.
26. Are there problems that result from hypothetical scenarios generated by participants of the baptism of desire debate? Is the above account another hypothetical construction like the ignorant native in the jungles of Africa? Could one argue that these hypotheticals are similar to moral theologians and ethicists that posit “life-boat” situation ethics, blur the reality of moral absolutes?

I am not sure I understand what you are asking.
27. Did the Blessed Mother need to be baptized? If so was it solely to receive the baptismal character? Would she not have been allowed, as the Mother of God, into heaven without it?
She did not need to be baptized in order to be saved, for she was conceived, not only without any sin, but with the fullness of Sanctifying Grace. However, as some theologians believe, it would have been fitting for her to have been baptized, in order that she may receive the Character.
28. If Jesus was baptized with water to fulfill all justice, how shall we have justice fulfilled in us without baptism of water?

Is this is a question or an argument phrased in the form of a question? If it is a question, then the answer is that “we have justice fulfilled in us without baptism of water” by means of one of the two substitutes of Sacramental Baptism, namely, the so-called baptisms of desire and of blood.

If it is an argument, then I’m afraid it is a bad argument, for it commits the informal fallacy of “Questionable Analogy.” The analogy between Christ “fulfilling justice” through His baptism and our being justified through Sacramental Baptism is questionable. Christ was baptized “to fulfill justice,” but this does not mean that he was baptized so he may receive justification, but rather, so that he may fulfill a prophecy. Baptism is certainly necessary for justification, but this ‘argument’ in the form of a question does not successfully prove it.
29. What is meant by unfulfilled justice and fulfilled justice as in Matthew 3:14,15?
To “fulfill justice” in Matthew means to fulfill prophecy. Matthew, who addresses his Gospel to the Jews, is primarily concerned with showing how Christ is the fulfillment of ‘the Law and the Prophets’, i.e., the entire Jewish religion, particularly as contained in the Old Testament.
30. Fr. Feeney was silenced so it is said, for his belief on baptism of desire. Are there any ecclesial documents that maintain that Fr. Feeney taught heresy? Examples?

No, he is never declared a heretic; and there is no mention of heresy in any of the ecclesial documents that censure him. He is excommunicated for “a grave disobedience,” which is not the same thing as heresy:

Since the priest Leonard Feeney, a resident of Boston (Saint Benedict Center), who for a long time has been suspended a divinis for grave disobedience toward church authority, has not, despite repeated warnings and threats of incurring excommunication ipso facto, come to his senses, the Most Eminent and Reverend Fathers, charged with safeguarding matters of faith and morals, have, in a Plenary Session held on Wednesday 4 February 1953, declared him excommunicated with all the effects of the law.

On Thursday, 12 February 1953, our Most Holy Lord Pius XII, by Divine Providence Pope, approved and confirmed the decree of the Most Eminent Fathers, and ordered that it be made a matter of public law.

Given at Rome, at the headquarters of the Holy Office, 13 February 1953.

Marius Crovini, Notary
(AAS, February 16, 1953; Vol. XXXV, p. 100)
31. What is invincible ignorance and what role does it have in this discussion?
Invincible ignorance is the unavoidable ignorance of the moral law or of facts that are relevant to acting according to the moral law. One is not morally responsible for acts that are done out of invincible ignorance.

I do not think this is relevant to our issue, however, for Baptism is necessary with a necessity of means, not merely with a necessity of precept. If it were merely a necessity of precept, we could be excused if we are invincibly ignorant of the precept to be baptized. However, since it is a necessity of means, we need this means to be saved. Just as a shipwrecked person floating in the ocean needs a raft, whether he is invincibly ignorant of it or not, so we are all born into this world with original sin and in need of Baptism, whether or not we are ignorant of it. Therefore, we need Baptism to be saved, whether or not we are ignorant of it. However—to extend the analogy—just as God can save the life of the shipwrecked person miraculously, without the raft (because He is outside of the laws of nature), so he can save the soul of a person extraordinarily, without Baptism (because He is outside the sacramental order).
32. There are some holy martyrs in the Roman Martyrology who are described as being catechumens. Since they are saints (a fact no one can dispute) some argue that they are in heaven without having been baptized with water. Their desire and martyrdom suffice. How does one respond to opponents who claim that there were some who were called catechumens that were already baptized (but still undergoing instruction)? Is there any evidence to support the view that there are saints in the Roman Martyrology who are not in fact baptized (ordinarily or extraordinarily)?
The Manuals teach that these martyrs were, in fact, not yet baptized. Thus, they constitute a proof that one can be saved through baptism of blood. See my answer to question 4.
33. It has been said that baptism of blood in the early church was used to signify simply martyrdom and not necessity of one who was unbaptized? Is this true?

Correct. “Baptism of blood” means just martyrdom, but we also know that the martyrs referred to above (question 4) were not yet baptized. When they teach that one can be saved ‘through baptism of blood’, they mean that it is possible for one to be saved through martyrdom, even if one is not yet baptized. Such is the teaching of the Manuals.
34. Why do most arguments about baptism of desire appear to be so volatile?
Again, this is the fallacy of the Complex Question. I do not agree that they appear to be volatile, at least the ones found in the Doctors of the Church and the traditional Scholastic manuals. In fact, to think that the Doctors of the Church and the Manuals give volatile arguments is quite a reckless judgment. Someone who thinks this way cannot possibly be serious about traditional Catholic theology, for the Doctors and the Manuals represent the pinnacle of traditional Catholic theology.
35. What is the official status of the position of the necessity of water baptism? Is it at least a theological position one is “permitted” to embrace?

No, it is not an opinion. It is a dogma of faith that baptism is necessary with a necessity of means. We must believe it. To deny this is a heresy. Thus, its opposite may not be tolerated.
36. What is your reaction to priests who deny Holy Communion to Catholics who reject baptism of desire because they embrace the rigid interpretation of John 3:5?
Until the Church declares that it is a heresy to deny baptism of desire/blood, a priest does not have the authority to do that. At this point, all we know it is proximate to heresy.
37. Would it be beneficial (in the future and with faithful traditional bishops) for a council and/or a pope to respond specifically and summarily to the claims and arguments of anti-baptism of desire proponents?
I think so. However, what we REALLY need the Church to do right now is to teach again and again that Baptism is necessary for salvation and that all non-Catholics must return to the Church, outside of which there is no salvation.