Wednesday, September 06, 2017

Tuesday, May 23, 2017

St. Thomas: Logic is Not a Science


It is a rather common position among Thomistic scholars to consider logic as a science.  And St. Thomas in fact often calls it scientia rationalis in several texts.  However, I would argue that this is only an analogical and less strict use of the term, and that St. Thomas does not consider logic to be strictly speaking a science.  

In his Commentary on Boethius on the Trinity, q. 5, a. 1, ad 2, he argues that there are three genera of speculative sciences---natural science, mathematics, and metaphysics---and in the process clearly argues that logic is not a science, but rather "an instrument of science" (instrumentum scientiae).

Articulus 1ARTICLE ONE Is Speculative Science Appropriately Divided into these Three Parts: Natural, Mathematical, and Divine?
Pars 3 q. 5 a. 1 arg. 1
Ad primum sic proceditur. Videtur quod speculativa inconvenienter in has partes dividatur...We proceed as follows to the first article: It seems that speculative science is not appropriately divided into these three parts...
Pars 3 q. 5 a. 1 arg. 2
Praeterea, Augustinus dicit in VIII de civitate Dei quod rationalis philosophia, quae est logica, sub contemplativa philosophia vel speculativa continetur. Cum ergo de ea mentionem non faciat, videtur quod divisio sit insufficiens.2. Again, Augustine says that rational philosophy, or logic, is included under contemplative or speculative philosophy. Consequently, since no mention is made of it, it seems the division is inadequate.
Pars 3 q. 5 a. 1 ad 2
Ad secundum dicendum quod scientiae speculativae, ut patet in principio metaphysicae, sunt de illis quorum cognitio quaeritur propter se ipsa. Res autem, de quibus est logica, non quaeruntur ad cognoscendum propter se ipsas, sed ut adminiculum quoddam ad alias scientias. Et ideo logica non continetur sub speculativa philosophia quasi principalis pars, sed sicut quiddam reductum ad philosophiam speculativam, prout ministrat speculationi sua instrumenta, scilicet syllogismos et diffinitiones et alia huiusmodi, quibus in scientiis speculativis indigemus. Unde secundum Boethium in commento super Porphyrium non tam est scientia quam scientiae instrumentum.Reply to 2. As is evident in the beginning of the Metaphysics, the speculative sciences concern things the knowledge of which is sought for their own sake. However, we do not seek to know the things studied by logic for themselves, but as a help to the other sciences. So logic is not included under speculative philosophy as a principal part but as something brought under speculative philosophy as furnishing speculative thought with its instruments, namely, syllogisms, definitions, and the like, which we need in the speculative sciences. Thus, according to Boethius, logic is not so much a science as the instrument of science.

Text Source: The Logic Museum.

Thursday, May 18, 2017

Garrigou-Lagrange on the Three Stages of Maturity in a Theologian's Career


From Garrigou-Lagrange, The Mother of the Saviour and Our Interior Life, preface:

This book is intended to be an exposition of the principal theses of Mariology in their bearing on our interior life. While writing it I have noticed more than once how often it has happened that a theologian admitted some prerogative of Our Lady in his earlier years under the influence of piety and admiration of her dignity. A second period then followed when the doctrinal difficulties came home to him more forcefully, and he was much more reserved in his judgement. Finally there was the third period, when, having had time to study the question in its positive and speculative aspects, he returned to his first position, not now because of his sentiment of piety and admiration, but because his more profound understanding of Tradition and theology revealed to him that the measure of the things of God—and in a special way those things of God which affect Mary—is more overflowing than is commonly understood. If the masterpieces of human art contain unsuspected treasures, the same must be said, with even more reason, of God’s masterpieces in the orders of nature and grace, especially when they bear an immediate relation to the Hypostatic Order, which is constituted by the mystery of the Incarnation of the Word. I have endeavoured to show how these three periods may be found exemplified in the process of St Thomas’ teaching on the Immaculate Conception. 
These periods bear a striking analogy to three others in the affective order. It has often been noticed that a soul’s first affective stage may be one of sense-perceptible devotion, for example to the Sacred Heart or the Blessed Virgin. This is followed by a stage of aridity. Then comes the final stage of perfect spiritual devotion, overflowing on the sensibility. May the Good God help the readers of this book who wish to learn of the greatness of the Mother of God and men to understand in what this spiritual progress consists.

Cf. Did Aquinas Deny the Immaculate Conception?  Garrigou-Lagrange on the 
three periods in the life of St. Thomas as to his teaching on this subject.

Tuesday, May 16, 2017

The Uses of Reason in Theology


The view that St. Thomas should be our model for our understanding of the relationship between faith and reason is a commonplace in Thomistic studies and in Catholic philosophy and theology in general.  But what exactly does he say about the ways in which reason suppors theology in its methodology?

Well, lately I've been delving into the topic of theological methodology from a Thomistic perspective.  Normally, when I want to research a topic thoroughly in St. Thomas, I usually begin by searching the Index Thomisticus.  

Here are three texts that I found in St. Thomas' corpus that are particularly relevant to the topic.

1) One important text was Summa contra gentiles, Book 1, ch. 4:

Caput 4Chapter 4
Quod veritas divinorum ad quam naturalis ratio pertingit
convenienter hominibus credenda proponitur
Duplici igitur veritate divinorum intelligibilium existente, una ad quam rationis inquisitio pertingere potest, altera quae omne ingenium humanae rationis excedit, utraque convenienter divinitus homini credenda proponitur.
Hoc autem de illa primo ostendendum est quae inquisitioni rationis pervia esse potest: ne forte alicui videatur, ex quo ratione haberi potest, frustra id supernaturali inspiratione credendum traditum esse.
[1] Since, therefore, there exists a twofold truth concerning the divine being, one to which the inquiry of the reason can reach, the other which surpasses the whole ability of the human reason, it is fitting that both of these truths be proposed to man divinely for belief.
This point must first be shown concerning the truth that is open to the inquiry of the reason; otherwise, it might perhaps seem to someone that, since such a truth can be known by the reason, it was uselessly given to men through a supernatural inspiration as an object of belief.

But these are not technically "uses of reason" in theology, but rather a "twofold truth" (duplex veritas) concerning what can be known in about divine things: one which can be attained by reason and another that exceeds reason, both of which needed to be revealed to man by God, but for different reasons. The first of these kinds of truth (which in another text he calls the praeambula fidei) are properly the object of philosophy, whereas the latter (the articuli fidei) can only be studied by theology. The first may also be studied by theology, and in this sense we have two distinct truths which theology can study: the preambles and the articles. And therefore this 'twofold truth' does imply a twofold use of reason in theology, but this is not explicitly what St. Thomas is addressing, and there seems to be an important difference here between what he is saying and what I've drawn out from what he's saying.

2) Another text I found is Summa theologiae Ia, q. 32, a. 1, ad 2:

Ad secundum dicendum quod ad aliquam rem dupliciter inducitur ratio. Uno modo, ad probandum sufficienter aliquam radicem, sicut in scientia naturali inducitur ratio sufficiens ad probandum quod motus caeli semper sit uniformis velocitatis. Alio modo inducitur ratio, non quae sufficienter probet radicem, sed quae radici iam positae ostendat congruere consequentes effectus, sicut in astrologia ponitur ratio excentricorum et epicyclorum ex hoc quod, hac positione facta, possunt salvari apparentia sensibilia circa motus caelestes, non tamen ratio haec est sufficienter probans, quia etiam forte alia positione facta salvari possent. Primo ergo modo potest induci ratio ad probandum Deum esse unum, et similia. Sed secundo modo se habet ratio quae inducitur ad manifestationem Trinitatis, quia scilicet, Trinitate posita, congruunt huiusmodi rationes; non tamen ita quod per has rationes sufficienter probetur Trinitas personarum. Et hoc patet per singula. Bonitas enim infinita Dei manifestatur etiam in productione creaturarum, quia infinitae virtutis est ex nihilo producere. Non enim oportet, si infinita bonitate se communicat, quod aliquid infinitum a Deo procedat, sed secundum modum suum recipiat divinam bonitatem. Similiter etiam quod dicitur, quod sine consortio non potest esse iucunda possessio alicuius boni, locum habet quando in una persona non invenitur perfecta bonitas; unde indiget, ad plenam iucunditatis bonitatem, bono alicuius alterius consociati sibi. Similitudo autem intellectus nostri non sufficienter probat aliquid de Deo, propter hoc quod intellectus non univoce invenitur in Deo et in nobis. Et inde est quod Augustinus, super Ioan., dicit quod per fidem venitur ad cognitionem, et non e converso.  Reply to Objection 2: Reason may be employed in two ways to establish a point: firstly, for the purpose of furnishing sufficient proof of some principle, as in natural science, where sufficient proof can be brought to show that the movement of the heavens is always of uniform velocity. Reason is employed in another way, not as furnishing a sufficient proof of a principle, but as confirming an already established principle, by showing the congruity of its results, as in astrology the theory of eccentrics and epicycles is considered as established, because thereby the sensible appearances of the heavenly movements can be explained; not, however, as if this proof were sufficient, forasmuch as some other theory might explain them. In the first way, we can prove that God is one; and the like. In the second way, reasons avail to prove the Trinity; as, when assumed to be true, such reasons confirm it. We must not, however, think that the trinity of persons is adequately proved by such reasons. This becomes evident when we consider each point; for the infinite goodness of God is manifested also in creation, because to produce from nothing is an act of infinite power. For if God communicates Himself by His infinite goodness, it is not necessary that an infinite effect should proceed from God: but that according to its own mode and capacity it should receive the divine goodness. Likewise, when it is said that joyous possession of good requires partnership, this holds in the case of one not having perfect goodness: hence it needs to share some other's good, in order to have the goodness of complete happiness. Nor is the image in our mind an adequate proof in the case of God, forasmuch as the intellect is not in God and ourselves univocally. Hence, Augustine says (Tract. xxvii. in Joan.) that by faith we arrive at knowledge, and not conversely.

This text does present a distinction between uses of reason: one demonstrative, the other 'manifestative' (as Garrigou-Lagrange calls it, stating that we use reason this way when dealing with things that non possunt nec probari nec improbari, sed cum probabilitate suadentur et sola fide cum certitudine tenentur).

So I'm assuming that we get the three "uses of reason" by combining this distinction in ST Ia, q. 32, a. 1 ad 2 with the distinction in SCG I.4. Thus, we have: 

(a) reason as demonstrating divine things independently from revelation, 
(b) reason as demonstrating divine things on the basis of revelation as its starting point, and
(c) reason, not as demonstrating, but only 'making manifest' divine things.

3) Super De Trinitate, pars 1 q. 2 a. 3 co. 3 (text borrowed from The Logic Museum): 

Sic ergo in sacra doctrina philosophia possumus tripliciter uti.Thus, in sacred doctrine we are able to make a threefold use of philosophy:
Primo ad demonstrandum ea quae sunt praeambula fidei, quae necesse est in fide scire, ut ea quae naturalibus rationibus de Deo probantur, ut Deum esse, Deum esse unum et alia huiusmodi vel de Deo vel de creaturis in philosophia probata, quae fides supponit.1. First, to demonstrate those truths that are preambles of faith and that have a necessary place in the science of faith. Such are the truths about God that can be proved by natural reason—that God exists, that God is one; such truths about God or about His creatures, subject to philosophical proof, faith presupposes.
Secundo ad notificandum per aliquas similitudines ea quae sunt fidei, sicut Augustinus in libro de Trinitate utitur multis similitudinibus ex doctrinis philosophicis sumptis ad manifestandum Trinitatem.2. Secondly, to give a clearer notion, by certain similitudes, of the truths of faith, as Augustine in his book, De Trinitate, employed any comparisons taken from the teachings of the philosophers to aid understanding of the Trinity.
Tertio ad resistendum his quae contra fidem dicuntur sive ostendendo ea esse falsa sive ostendendo ea non esse necessaria.3. In the third place, to resist those who speak against the faith, either by showing that their statements are false, or by showing that they are not necessarily true.

Here we have a slightly different distinction. We do find some version of elements (a) and (c), but we also have a brand new element, the third and last one in the text, which consists in (d) refuting the arguments of those who argue against the faith, by showing that their arguments are either false or non demonstrative. At any rate, if we gather all these texts, it seems we get at least four different uses of reason in theology.

I am not trying to draw any conclusive synthesis here, as this is just a research starting point.  I will share more as I continue to work on this topic.  In the meantime, compare the above with Garrigou-Lagrange (Reality, Ch. 6), who identifies six "steps" in theological procedure, some of which seem to be identical (or at least reducible) to the ones mentioned above:

Article Two: Steps In Theological Procedure

These steps are pointed out by St. Thomas, first in the first question of the Summa, secondly, more explicitly, when he treats of specific subjects: eternal life, for example, predestination, the Trinity, the mysteries of the Incarnation, the Redemption, the Eucharist, and the other sacraments. We distinguish six such successive procedures.

1. The positive procedure.
2. The analytic procedure.
3. The apologetic procedure.
4. The manifestative procedure.
5. The explicative procedure.
6. The illative procedure.
     (a) of truths explicitly revealed.
     (b) of truths not explicitly revealed.
     (c) of truths virtually revealed.

Tuesday, March 28, 2017

Free PDFs of Doronzo and Jesuit BAC Manuals!!!


Below are some links for you to download free ITOPL files of tremendously valuable manuals of dogmatic theology published in the 1940s and 50s.  These works (among others) represent the most advanced state of Catholic theology so far... i.e., the pinnacle of organic, traditional theological development before most theologians in the West lost their grip and decided to turn their focus elsewhere.  The Spanish Jesuit manual, published by the Madrid-based Biblioteca de Autores Cristianos (B.A.C.) is an impressive work done by different authors from the generation before Vatican II, each an expert in his field; it represents the peak of Jesuit theology before the order drank the cool-aid.  Doronzo was a professor of Dogma at Catholic University of America (Washington, D.C.), and his massive dogmatic work on the Sacraments remains unsurpassed.  I must say that although I tend to prefer Dominican Thomists (such as Garrigou-Lagrange, Hugon, Ramírez, etc.), true greatness must be recognized where it is really present.  

By the way, the B.A.C. manual was translated into English a few years ago by Fr. Kenneth Baker, S.J. and is available from Amazon.  The set is not cheap (8 vols., $35 USD apiece), but it is truly worth its weight in gold.  If anyone were to give it to me for my birthday or for Christmas, I totally wouldn't mind.

Also, the Mercaba website, a Catholic resource supersite based off of Spain, has both the philosophy and theology manuals of the Spanish Jesuits (both published by B.A.C.) available in html in Spanish translation.

But of course, if we want to do serious theology, we should rather be reading the original Latin.  So here it is below, for free!  Enjoy!!!

(For future convenience, I'm providing permanent links to these and lots more on the "Downloadable PDFs" tab above, so when you need them you can just visit us and download from here.)

-Patres S.J. in HispaniaSacrae Theologiae Summa (BAC), v. 1: Theologia Fundamentalis.
-Patres S.J. in HispaniaSacrae Theologiae Summa (BAC), v. 2: De Deo Uno, Trino, Creante, Elevante; De peccatis.
-Patres S.J. in HispaniaSacrae Theologiae Summa (BAC), v. 3: De Incarnatione; Mariologia; De gratia; De virtutibus.
-Patres S.J. in HispaniaSacrae Theologiae Summa (BAC), v. 4: De Sacramentis; De novissimis.
-Emmanuel Doronzo, O.M.IThe Science of Sacred Theology for TeachersBk. 1: Introduction to Theology.
-Emmanuel Doronzo, O.M.IThe Science of Sacred Theology for TeachersBk. 2: Revelation.
-Emmanuel Doronzo, O.M.IThe Science of Sacred Theology for TeachersBk. 3: Channels of Revelation.
-Emmanuel Doronzo, O.M.IThe Science of Sacred Theology for TeachersBk. 4: The Church.
-Emmanuel Doronzo, O.M.ITheologia Dogmaticav. 1: De Revelatione, De Locis Theologicis, De Deo Uno.
-Emmanuel Doronzo, O.M.ITheologia Dogmaticav. 2: De Deo Trino, De Deo Creante et Elevante, De Gratia.
-Emmanuel Doronzo, O.M.ITractatus dogmaticus de Sacramentis in genere.
-Emmanuel Doronzo, O.M.ITractatus dogmaticus de Baptismo et Confirmatione.
-Emmanuel Doronzo, O.M.ITractatus dogmaticus de Eucharistia, t. 1,.
-Emmanuel Doronzo, O.M.ITractatus dogmaticus de Eucharistia, t. 2.
-Emmanuel Doronzo, O.M.ITractatus dogmaticus de Poenitentia, t. 1.
-Emmanuel Doronzo, O.M.ITractatus dogmaticus de Poenitentia, t. 2.
-Emmanuel Doronzo, O.M.ITractatus dogmaticus de Poenitentia, t. 3.
-Emmanuel Doronzo, O.M.ITractatus dogmaticus de Ordine, t. 1.
-Emmanuel Doronzo, O.M.ITractatus dogmaticus de Ordine, t. 2.
-Emmanuel Doronzo, O.M.ITractatus dogmaticus de Ordine, t. 3.
-Emmanuel Doronzo, O.M.ITractatus dogmaticus de Extremaunctione, t. 1.
-Emmanuel Doronzo, O.M.ITractatus dogmaticus de Extremaunctione, t. 2.

Wednesday, March 22, 2017

New Book: John of St. Thomas, The Gifts of the Holy Spirit (Cluny Media, 2016)


John of St. Thomas, O.P., The Gifts of the Holy Spiritwith an introduction by Cajetan Cuddy, O.P. (Tacoma, WA: Cluny Media, 2016), xiv + 403pp.

To my joy and amazement, Cluny Media just recently reprinted a translation of a section of John of St. Thomas' Cursus Theologicus, dedicated to the Gifts of the Holy Ghost. The translation by Dominic Hughes, O.P., was originally published in 1951 by Sheed & Ward under the title, The Gifts of the Holy Ghost.  But it had been long out of print and hard to find.  It is now available from the Cluny Media website for the affordable price of $24.95.  I have been working on a review of this book to submit it for publication in a scholarly journal.  Before I do so I would like to share with you some of my thoughts in draft form.
John of St. Thomas (1589-1644) is not only an exceptionally faithful commentator of St. Thomas' Summa; his Cursus Theologicus is also historically monumental insofar as it is in itself an original Thomistic synthesis, a theological masterpiece in its own right that goes beyond merely commenting on the text of St. Thomas.  For example, whereas St. Thomas treats of the Gifts in many different questions spread throughout the Secunda Pars (Ia-IIae, qq. 68-70; IIa-IIae, qq. 8-9, 19, 45, 52, 121, and 139), John of St. Thomas gathers together the entire discussion of the Gifts into a single Disputatio.  In a sense, the Cursus is the first of the theological manuals, that is, the predecessor to the many Thomistic treatises ad mentem Sancti Thomae of later centuries.  It is historically a turning point between the earlier commentatorial tradition and the later manualist tradition. 
Hughes’ English translation does tone down a bit the scholastic format of the Latin original.  'Articles' are translated into 'chapters', and the questions that John asks in each are rendered as statements or headings. Thus the original scholastic sense of a quest for an answer to a question is lost a bit in translation.  Also lost in translation is John’s constant and explicit reference to the logical structure of the arguments to which he is replying: expressions such as ad primam, major probaturminor constatcontra estare either missing, or glossed over in such a way that their logical precision is lost; for instance, ad minorem is paraphrased as "in response to the latter part of this argument."  But these tendencies seem to be almost inescapable among mid-20th century English translations of scholastic works; compare, for example, Garrigou-Lagrange's Beatitude, translated by Patrick Cummins, O.S.B., with Garrigou's original De beatitudine.  For a purist such as myself, this toning-down of the scholastic method is obviously a drawback.  But the relatively free-flowing English text of these translations is designed to appeal to a non-expert audience, and thus opens up a masterpiece from the heart of the Thomistic tradition to a wider readership.  This is surely something positive in its own way (perhaps a mixed blessing of sorts) and, realistically, it is necessitated by the financial imperative of selling more books.  If you want to be a strict 'purist', read the Latin text itself.  For, as the Italians say: "traduttore, traditore."  That said, Hughes' translation includes, over and above the original, very helpful outlines at the beginning of each of his chapters (articles), which are a great aid to the careful student of John’s text.  
            One minor aspect in the reprint that I do find entirely unnecessary and in a way regrettable is the change in title, and together with it the "minor editorial revisions to the original text, including the changing of ‘Holy Ghost’ to ‘Holy Spirit’ throughout."  Not that it is theologically erroneous to say 'Holy Spirit' instead of 'Holy Ghost'. Rather, I just think that the deliberate suppression of traditional Catholic expressions such as this one tends to promote a disconnect with tradition in subsequent generations of Catholics.  This suppression furthers yet a little more the linguistic distance between us and our ancestors in the faith.  It is not so much an issue of preserving a tiny feature of our Catholic language; rather what is at stake is promoting continuity between generations of Catholics.  English-speaking Catholics need to become more familiar with the faith, writings, and modes of expression of their forefathers, not less.  That said, the consistent replacement of the expression ‘Holy Ghost’ throughout the book was to me personally at most only a bit distracting, and did not detract from the sheer joy of holding and reading John of St. Thomas’s commentary on St. Thomas in translation.
         The reprint also includes a brand new introduction by Fr. Cajetan Cuddy, O.P., which aims to show to the average reader the relevance of John of St. Thomas’ work on the Holy Ghost.  Fr. Cuddy here offers a brief apologia of the Thomistic Commentatorial Tradition.  He argues that "truth did not die with Saint Thomas Aquinas in 1274" (p. v), and that this tradition is "a living tradition" because the men who represent it received the "essential first principles of doctrinal purity and cultural engagement from Saint Thomas" and then went on "expeditions through the cultural and intellectual jungles of their own periods" (pp. v-vi).  And John of St. Thomas, whom his contemporaries called ‘another Thomas’, excels among Thomists in that he had a "unique ability to adjudicate difficult questions amidst great confusion without deviating from the truth.  Speculative complexity did not deter or suffocate this Iberian priest" (p. vii).  The translator's introduction to the 1951 edition, also contained in the reprint, includes a rather valuable "historical introduction" to John of St. Thomas, which will prove very helpful to readers seeking to deepen their understanding of the life, work, and times of this great Thomist.
        All in all, Fr. Cajetan Cuddy and Cluny Media have done a great service to English-speaking readers of Thomism and Theology in general by making available again this gem of the Thomistic tradition in translation.  The volume is a great joy to have and to study. I sure hope to see more volumes of this kind in years to come. 

Be sure to look also at Cluny Media's other Thomistic titles, such as Brennan's Thomistic Psychology, as well as several other volumes published in their Thomistic Institute Series.

Wednesday, March 01, 2017

New Downloadable PDF Collection (External Links)


Downloadable PDFs

(External Links)

As of late, I have been searching the internet for downloadable PDFs of works relevant to Thomism and to pretty much anything else related to traditional Catholic thought.  Below is what I've found so far.  

Highlights include much of St. Thomas' Leonine Edition and lots and lots of works by Fr. Réginald Garrigou-Lagrange, O.P. and Santiago Ramírez, O.P. in various languages.  And I'm just getting started; there's lots more out there.

Many of the files I've found were originally scanned by us at Ite ad Thomam, and form part of the Ite ad Thomam Out-of-Print Library (ITOPL).  Most of the volumes were scanned between 2001 and 2009 from the libraries of FSSP's Our Lady of Guadalupe Seminary, near Lincoln, Nebraska, and of Mount Angel Abbey and Seminary in Oregon.  They have been shared and shared and by now made public on the internet.  As I find more of our files across the internet I will provide links to them.  Just remember you got them first from us!

will keep a list of links handy here on the Ite ad Thomam Institute website. Look for the 'tab' above labelled "Downloadable PDFs"; there, I will be adding links as I find them.

-Sertillanges, O.P. La philosophie morale de Saint Thomas d'Aquin.
-Sertillanges, O.P. Saint Thomas d'Aquin, v. 1.
-Sertillanges, O.P. Saint Thomas d'Aquin, v. 2.
-H. D. Gardeil, O.PIntroduction to the Philosophy of St. Thomas. Vol. 2: Cosmology.
-Réginald Garrigou-Lagrange, O.PGod: His Existence and His Nature, vol. 1.
-Réginald Garrigou-Lagrange, O.PGod: His Existence and His Nature, vol. 2.
-Réginald Garrigou-Lagrange, O.PDieu: Son existence et sa nature.
-Réginald Garrigou-Lagrange, O.PDios: Su Existencia.
-Réginald Garrigou-Lagrange, O.PDios: Su Naturaleza.
-Réginald Garrigou-Lagrange, O.PLe Réalisme du principe finalité.
-Réginald Garrigou-Lagrange, O.PEl realismo del principio de finalidad.
-Réginald Garrigou-Lagrange, O.P"Natural Object of the Intellect and First Object Understood".
-Réginald Garrigou-Lagrange, O.P"Non potest esse genuina sensatio sine sensato".
-Reginald Garrigou-Lagrange, O.P. "Saint Thomas Commentateur d'Aristote"
-Reginald Garrigou-Lagrange, O.PLes XXIV theses thomistes.
-Santiago Ramírez, O.PDe analogia, vol. 1.
-Santiago Ramírez, O.PDe analogia, vol. 2.
-Santiago Ramírez, O.PDe analogia, vol. 3.
-Santiago Ramírez, O.PDe ordine.
-Hirschberger. History of Philosophy
-Copleston. A History of Philosophy, Vol. 1 (Ancient)
-Copleston. A History of Philosophy, Vol. 2 (Medieval)
-Copleston. A History of Philosophy, Vol. 3 (Medieval)
-Copleston. A History of Philosophy, Vol. 7 (Modern)
-Douay-Rheims Bible (Challoner edition).

-De JournelEnchiridion Patristicum.


-Isidore of SevilleEtymologies.


-S. Thomae Opera ed. Leonina, t. 1: In Aristotelis libros Peri hermeneias et Posteriorum analyticorum, Ed. 1a.
-S. Thomae Opera ed. Leonina, t. 2: In Aristotelis libros Physicorum.
-S. Thomae Opera ed. Leonina, t. 3: In Aristotelis libros De caelo, De generatione et Meteorologicorum.
-S. Thomae Opera ed. Leonina, t. 4: Summa Theologiae I.1-49 (cum Cajetani commentario).
-S. Thomae Opera ed. Leonina, t. 5: Summa Theologiae I.50-119 (cum Cajetani commentario).
-S. Thomae Opera ed. Leonina, t. 6: Summa Theologiae I-II.1-70 (cum Cajetani commentario).
-S. Thomae Opera ed. Leonina, t. 7: Summa Theologiae I-II.71-114 (cum Cajetani commentario).
-S. Thomae Opera ed. Leonina, t. 8: Summa Theologiae II-II.1-56 (cum Cajetani commentario).
-S. Thomae Opera ed. Leonina, t. 9: Summa Theologiae II-II.57-122 (cum Cajetani commentario).
-S. Thomae Opera ed. Leonina, t. 10: Summa Theologiae II-II.123-189 (cum Cajetani commentario).
-S. Thomae Opera ed. Leonina, t. 11: Summa Theologiae III.1-59 (cum Cajetani commentario).
-S. Thomae Opera ed. Leonina, t. 12: Summa Theologiae III.60-90 (cum Cajetani commentario).
-S. Thomae Opera ed. Leonina, t. 13: Summa Contra Gentiles 1 et 2 (cum Ferrarensis commentario).
-S. Thomae Opera ed. Leonina, t. 14: Summa Contra Gentiles 3 (cum Ferrarensis commentario).
-S. Thomae Opera ed. Leonina, t. 15: Summa Contra Gentiles 4 (cum Ferrarensis commentario).
-S. Thomae Opera ed. Leonina, t. 16: Summa Theologiae et Summa Contra Gentiles, Indices.
-S. Thomae Opera ed. Leonina, t. 22.1: De veritate 1-7.
-S. Thomae Opera ed. Leonina, t. 22.2: De veritate 8-12.
-S. Thomae Opera ed. Leonina, t. 22.3: De veritate, 13-20.
-S. Thomae Opera ed. Leonina, t. 22.3: De veritate, 21-29.
-S. Thomae Opera ed. Leonina, t. 22.3: De veritate, indices.
-S. Thomae Opera ed. Leonina, t. 23: De malo.
-S. Thomae Opera ed. Leonina, t. 24.1: Quaestiones disputatae de anima.
-S. Thomae Opera ed. Leonina, t. 26: Super Job.
-S. Thomae Opera ed. Leonina, t. 28: Super Isaiam.
-S. Thomae Opera ed. Leonina, t. 40a: Contra errores graecorum.
-S. Thomae Opera ed. Leonina, t. 40de, De substantiis separatis, Super Decretales.
-S. Thomae Opera ed. Leonina, t. 41bc: De perfectione, Contra retrahentium.
-S. Thomae Opera ed. Leonina, t. 42: Opuscula varia.
-S. Thomae Opera ed. Leonina, t. 43, Opuscula varia.
-S. Thomae Opera ed. Leonina, t. 45-1, Sentencia libri De anima.
-S. Thomae Opera ed. Leonina, t. 45-1, Sentencia libri De sensu et De memoria.
-S. Thomae Opera ed. Leonina, t. 47.1: Sententia libri Ethicorum, 1-3.
-S. Thomae Opera ed. Leonina, t. 47.2: Sententia libri Ethicorum, 4-10.
-S. Thomas AquinasLiteral Commentary on the Book of Job.
-S. Thomas AquinasThe Academic Sermons.
-Reginald Garrigou-Lagrange, O.PDe methodo S. Thomae.
-Reginald Garrigou-Lagrange, O.PDe Deo Uno.
-Réginald Garrigou-Lagrange, O.PDe Deo Trino et Creatore.
-Réginald Garrigou-Lagrange, O.PThe Trinity and God the Creator.
-Reginald Garrigou-Lagrange, O.PDe beatitudine.
-Réginald Garrigou-Lagrange, O.PBeatitude.
-Réginald Garrigou-Lagrange, O.PDe gratia.
-Réginald Garrigou-Lagrange, O.PGrace.
-Réginald Garrigou-Lagrange, O.PDe virtutibus theologicis.
-Réginald Garrigou-Lagrange, O.PDe Christo Salvatore.
-Réginald Garrigou-Lagrange, O.PChrist the Saviour (Word format).
-Réginald Garrigou-Lagrange, O.PDe Eucharistia et Poenitentia.
-Reginald Garrigou-Lagrange, O.PLa síntesis tomista.
-Reginald Garrigou-Lagrange, O.PThe Essence and Topicality of Thomism.
-Reginald Garrigou-Lagrange, O.PEssenza e attualita del tomismo.
-Santiago Ramírez, O.PDe hominis beatitudine, vol. 1.
-Santiago Ramírez, O.PDe hominis beatitudine, vol. 2.
-Santiago Ramírez, O.PDe hominis beatitudine, vol. 3.
-Santiago Ramírez, O.PDe passionibus animae.
-Santiago Ramírez, O.PDe habitibus in communi, vol. 1.
-Santiago Ramírez, O.PDe habitibus in communi, vol. 2.
-Santiago Ramírez, O.PDe gratia Dei, vol. 1.
-Santiago Ramírez, O.PDe gratia Dei, vol. 2.
-Santiago Ramírez, O.P¿Qué es un tomista?
-Santiago Ramírez, O.PIntroducción a Tomás de Aquino.
-Santiago Ramírez, O.PDe Auctoritate Doctrinali S. Thomae Aquinatis.
-Santiago Ramírez, O.PThe Authority of St. Thomas Aquinas.


-Ambroise Gardeil, O.P. Le donné révelé et la théologie.
-WalsheThe Principles of Catholic Apologetics. (Summary of Garrigou-Lagrange's De Revelatione.)
-Reginald Garrigou-Lagrange, O.PDe Revelatione per Ecclesiam Catholicam Proposita, v. 1.
-Reginald Garrigou-Lagrange, O.PDe Revelatione per Ecclesiam Catholicam Proposita, v. 2.
-Réginald Garrigou-Lagrange, O.PArticles on the Nouvelle Théologie (Angelicum).
-Reginald Garrigou-Lagrange, O.P. "La nouvelle théologie: Ou va-t-elle?"
-Reginald Garrigou-Lagrange, O.P. "La notion pragmatiste de la vérité et ses conséquences en théologie"
-Reginald Garrigou-Lagrange, O.P. "On the Principle of Idealism ‘Whatever is Outside of the Mind is Unknowable’"
-Reginald Garrigou-Lagrange, O.P. "Where is the New Theology Leading Us
-Reginald Garrigou-Lagrange, O.P. "The structure of the encyclical Humani Generis"
-Reginald Garrigou-Lagrange, O.P. "La struttura dell'Enciclica Humani generis"
-Reginald Garrigou-Lagrange, O.PEl sentido común.
-Reginald Garrigou-Lagrange, O.P. "Prémotion Physique"
-Reginald Garrigou-Lagrange, O.P. "Providence selon la théologie"
-Reginald Garrigou-Lagrange, O.PLe sens du mystere et le Clair-Obscur Intellectuel- Nature et Surnature.
-Reginald Garrigou-Lagrange, O.PEl sentido del misterio.
-Reginald Garrigou-Lagrange, O.PPredestination (English).
-Reginald Garrigou-Lagrange, O.PLa predestination de los santos y la gracia.
-Reginald Garrigou-Lagrange, O.PLa Royauté universelle de Notre-Seigneur Jésus-Christ"
-Reginald Garrigou-Lagrange, O.PLife Everlasting.
-Reginald Garrigou-Lagrange, O.PLa vida eterna y la profundidad del alma.
-Pesch, S.JPraelectiones dogmaticaet. 1: Institutiones propedeuticae.
-Pesch, S.JPraelectiones dogmaticaet. 2: De Deo Uno et Trino.
-Pesch, S.JPraelectiones dogmaticaet. 3: De Deo Creante et Fine Ultimo.
-Pesch, S.JPraelectiones dogmaticaet. 4: De Verbo Incarnato; De Sanctis.
-Pesch, S.JPraelectiones dogmaticaet. 5: De gratia; De lege.
-Pesch, S.JPraelectiones dogmaticaet. 6: De Sacramentis I.
-Pesch, S.JPraelectiones dogmaticaet. 7: De Sacramentis II.
-Pesch, S.JPraelectiones dogmaticaet. 8: De virtutibus theologicis.
-Pesch, S.JPraelectiones dogmaticaet. 9: De virtutibus moralibus; De novissimis.
-HervéManuale Theologiae Dogmaticaev. 1: De revelatione, De Ecclesia, De fontibus.
-GibbonsThe Faith of Our Fathers.


-Reginald Garrigou-Lagrange, O.PMother of the Saviour.
-Reginald Garrigou-Lagrange, O.PLa Madre del Salvador y nuestra vida interior.
-Reginald Garrigou-Lagrange, O.PProvidence (Word format).
-Reginald Garrigou-Lagrange, O.PLa providencia y la confianza en Dios.
-Reginald Garrigou-Lagrange, O.PChristian Perfection and Contemplation.
-Reginald Garrigou-Lagrange, O.POur Saviour and His Love for Us.
-Reginald Garrigou-Lagrange, O.PEl Salvador y su amor por nosotros.
-Reginald Garrigou-Lagrange, O.PThe Love of God and the Cross of Jesus, vol. 1.
-Reginald Garrigou-Lagrange, O.PThe Love of God and the Cross of Jesus, vol. 2.
-Reginald Garrigou-Lagrange, O.PPriest in Union with Christ.
-Reginald Garrigou-Lagrange, O.PLa unión del sacerdote con Cristo sacerdote y víctima.
-Reginald Garrigou-Lagrange, O.PPriesthood and Perfection.
-Reginald Garrigou-Lagrange, O.PLa santificación del sacerdote.
-Reginald Garrigou-Lagrange, O.PLe virtù eroiche nei bambini.
-Reginald Garrigou-Lagrange, O.PThree Ages of the Interior Life, vol. 1.
-Reginald Garrigou-Lagrange, O.PThree Ages of the Interior Life, vol. 2.
-Reginald Garrigou-Lagrange, O.PLas tres edades de la vida interior.
-Reginald Garrigou-Lagrange, O.PThe Last Writings.
-Royo Marín, O.P. Teología de la perfección cristiana.


-FortescueThe Mass: A Study of the Roman Liturgy.