Tuesday, December 08, 2009

130th Anniversary of the Opening of the Vatican Council

Share/Bookmark (And the 44th Anniversary of the Closing of the Second Vatican Council)

From Pastor aeternus (Dogmatic Constitution on the Church of Christ)
(3- & 4-digit nos. correspond to Denzinger paragraphs)

Chap. 4. The Infallible "Magisterium" of the Roman Pontiff

1832 [Arguments from public documents]. Moreover, that by the very apostolic primacy which the Roman Pontiff as the successor of Peter, the chief of the Apostles, holds over the universal Church, the supreme power of the magisterium is also comprehended, this Holy See has always held, the whole experience of the Church approves, and the ecumenical Councils themselves, especially those in which the Last convened with the West in a union of faith and charity, have declared.

1833 For the fathers of the fourth council of Constantinople, adhering to the ways of the former ones, published this solemn profession: "Our first salvation is to guard the rule of right faith [. . .]. And since the sentiment of our Lord Jesus Christ cannot be passed over when He says: 'Thou art Peter; and upon this rock I will build my church' [Matt. 16:18], these words which were spoken are proven true by actual results, since in the Apostolic See the Catholic religion has always been preserved untainted, and holy doctrine celebrated. Desiring, then, least of all to be separated from the faith and teaching of this [Apostolic See], We hope that We may deserve to be in the one communion which the Apostolic See proclaims,in which the solidarity of the Christian religion is whole and true" *

1834 [cf. n. 171 f.]. Moreover, with the approval of the second council of Lyons, the Greeks have professed, "that the Holy Roman Church holds the highest and the full primacy and pre-eminence over the universal Catholic Church, which it truthfully and humbly professes it has received with plenitude of power from the Lord Himself in blessed Peter, the chief or head of the Apostles, of whom the Roman Pontiff is the successor; and, just as it is bound above others to defend the truth of Faith, so, too, if any questions arise about faith, they should be defined by its judgment" [cf. n.466].

1835 Finally, the Council of Florence has defined: "That the Roman Pontiff is the true vicar of Christ and head of the whole Church and the father and teacher of all Christians; and to it in the blessed Peter has been handed down by the Lord Jesus Christ the full power of feeding, ruling, and guiding the universal Church" [see n.694].

1836 [Argument from the assent of the Church]. To satisfy this pastoral duty, our predecessors always gave tireless attention that the saving doctrine of Christ be spread among all the peoples of the earth, and with equal care they watched that, wherever it was received, it was preserved sound and pure. Therefore, the bishops of the whole world, now individually, now gathered in Synods, following a long custom of the churches and the formula of the ancient rule, referred to this Holy See those dangers particularly which emerged in the affairs of faith, that there especially the damages to faith might be repaired where faith cannot experience a failure. * The Roman Pontiffs, moreover, according as the condition of the times and affairs advised, sometimes by calling ecumenical Councils or by examining the opinion of the Church spread throughout the world; sometimes by particular synods, sometimes by employing other helps which divine Providence supplied, have defined that those matters must be held which with God's help they have recognized as in agreement with Sacred Scripture and apostolic tradition. For, the Holy Spirit was not promised to the successors of Peter that by His revelation they might disclose new doctrine, but that by His help they might guard sacredly the revelation transmitted through the apostles and the deposit of faith, and might faithfully set it forth. Indeed, all the venerable fathers have embraced their apostolic doctrine, and the holy orthodox Doctors have venerated and followed it, knowing full well that the See of St. Peter always remains unimpaired by any error, according to the divine promise of our Lord the Savior made to the chief of His disciples: "I have prayed for thee, that thy faith fail not: and thou, being once converted, confirm thy brethren" [Luke 22:32].

1837 So, this gift of truth and a never failing faith was divinely conferred upon Peter and his successors in this chair, that they might administer their high duty for the salvation of all; that the entire flock of Christ, turned away by them from the poisonous food of error, might be nourished on the sustenance of heavenly doctrine, that with the occasion of schism removed the whole Church might be saved as one, and relying on her foundation might stay firm against the gates of hell.

1838 [Definition of infallibility]. But since in this very age, in which the salutary efficacy of the apostolic duty is especially required, not a few are found who disparage its authority, We deem it most necessary to assert solemnly the prerogative which the Only-begotten Son of God deigned to enjoin with the highest pastoral office.

1839 And so, adhering faithfully to the tradition received from the beginning of the Christian faith, to the glory of God, our Savior, the elevation of the Catholic religion and the salvation of Christian peoples, with the approbation of the sacred Council, We teach and explain that the dogma has been divinely revealed: that the Roman Pontiff, when he speaks ex cathedra, that is, when carrying out the duty of the pastor and teacher of all Christians by virtue of his supreme apostolic authority he defines a doctrine of faith or morals to be held by the universal Church, through the divine assistance promised him in blessed Peter, operates with that infallibility with which the divine Redeemer wished that His church be instructed in defining doctrine on faith and morals; and so such definitions of the Roman Pontiff from himself, but not from the consensus of the Church, are unalterable.

1840 [Canon]. But if anyone presumes to contradict this definition of Ours, which may God forbid: let him be anathema.

Given at Rome in public session, solemnly held in the Vatican Basilica in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and seventy, on the eighteenth day of July, in the twenty-fifth year of Our Pontificate.

In conformity with the original.

Joseph, Bishop of St. Polten Secretary to the Vatican Council.


Anonymous said...

And my ecclesiology professor (Regis Martin, at Steubenville) told us that we were not going to study Vatican I in that class because Vatican I had not said anything significant on ecclesiology!

But as this post shows, Vatican I has a whole dogmatic constitution on the Church--and one of superior authoritative dogmatic value than Vatican II's 'Dogmatic Constitution on the Church' (Lumen Gentium), since V1 DOES intend to bind the faithful to believe in its teaching, whereas V2 does not.

Neo-conservatism... what ignorance!

Don Paco said...

One minor clarification, Anonymous. You are right that Vatican II does not bind the faithful to BELIEVE in its teaching (as something that is 'De fide'), whereas Vatican I does and is, therefore, superior in its dogmatic authority than Vatican II, as you rightly point out. Vatican II, however, DOES ask the faithful to assent to the teaching "with a religious submission of mind and will."

We must not forget that. That's why it's not so easy for us (traditional Catholics who accept V2 as a valid council) to say that such and such a V2 document contains false teaching. We may admit that there are some ambiguities and even expressions that can be interpreted in a heterodox way, but it is not our place to determine that it in fact has erroneous teaching. (And yes, I am aware of the alarming teachings--especially the degrees of communion of Lumen gentium and the public religious liberty of Dignitatis humanae--that at least appear to contradict previous doctrine.) But our place is simply to keep believing the traditional faith, assent to whatever there is in Vatican II which a (traditional) Catholic can assent to without falling into a contradiction, and patiently wait for the Church either to explain how the rest is not contradictory or to resolve the problem in some other way.

Don Paco said...

By the way, I also had Regis Martin, and he said the same thing: Vatican II was the first council to speak on ecclesiology. All you have to do is go to the systematic index in Denzinger and see that this is a ridiculous idea.