Sunday, March 27, 2011

Commemorating the Last of the Fathers, the First of the Scholastics


Share/Bookmark From Matins of the Feast of St. John Damascene, Confessor, Doctor of the Church
Online Source: www.breviary.net

Absolutio: Ipsíus píetas et misericórdia nos ádjuvet, qui cum Patre et Spíritu Sancto vivit et regnat in sæcula sæculórum.R.  Amen.
Absolution:  May his loving-kindness and mercy assist us.  Who, with the Father, and the Holy Ghost, liveth and reigneth, for ever and ever.
R.  Amen.
V.  Jube domne, (Dómine) benedícere.
V.  Vouchsafe, Reverend Father (O Lord), thy blessing.
Benedíctio 4: Deus Pater omnípotens sit nobis propítius et clemens.
R.  Amen.
Benediction 4:  May God the Father Almighty shew us his mercy and pity.
R.  Amen.
Lesson iv
Joánnes, a pátrio loco Damascénus dictus, nóbili génere natus, humánis divinísque lítteris a Cosma mónacho Constantinópoli fuit excúltus ; cumque ea tempestáte imperátor Leo Isáuricus nefário bello sacrárum imáginum cultum insectarétur, Joánnes, hortátu Gregórii tértii Románi Pontíficis, et sermóne et scriptis sanctitátem illíus cultus sédulo propugnávit.  Quo facto tantam Leónis advérsum se invídiam concitávit, ut hic confíctis lítteris ipsum tamquam proditórem accusárit apud Damásci calípham, qui Joánne consiliário et adminístro utebátur.  Crédulus fraudi princeps Joánni nequídquam calúmniam ejuránti præcídi déxteram jussit.  Verum innocéntiæ vindex ádfuit cliénti suo sanctíssima Virgo, cujus opem précibus eníxe imploráverat, ejúsque benefício trunca manus restitúta ita bráchio coáluit, ac si divísa numquam fuísset.  Quo máxime miráculo permótus Joánnes, quod pridem ánimo concéperat, éxsequi státuit.  Itaque ægre a calípha impetráto secéssu, suas omnes facultátes in egénos distríbuit, et servos libertáte donávit ; tum sacra Palæstínæ loca peregrínus lustrávit, ac demum una cum Cosma institutóre suo in lauram sancti Sabbæ prope Hierosólymam concéssit, ibíque présbyter initiátus est.
This John is called John of Damascus, from his native place.  He was of noble birth, and studied sacred and profane letters at Constantinople, under the monk Cosmas.  At what time the Emperor Leo the Isaurian was making a wicked attack upon the honouring of holy images, John, at the desire of the Roman Pontiff Gregory III, earnestly defended both by his words and his writings, the holiness of this honour.  By this he roused against him so great a hatred on the part of Leo, that that Prince, by forged letters, accused John as a traitor to the Caliph of Damascus, whom he was serving as a councillor and minister.  John denied the charge, but the Caliph was deceived by it, and caused his right hand to be cut off.  He called earnestly for the help of the most holy Virgin, and she manifested the innocency of her servant by reuniting his hand to his arm, as though it had never been cut off.  This miracle moved John to carry out a design which he had long had in mind.  He obtained from the Caliph, albeit with difficulty, leave to go away, distributed all his goods to feed the poor, and freed all his slaves, then visited as a pilgrim the holy places in Palestine, and at length withdrew, along with his teacher Cosmas, to the monastery of St. Saba, between Jerusalem and the Dead Sea.  There he was ordained priest.
V.  Tu autem, Dómine, miserére nobis.
R.  Deo grátias.
V.  But thou, O Lord, have mercy upon us.
R.  Thanks be to God.

The monastery of Mar Saba
R.  Honéstum fecit illum Dóminus, et custodívit eum ab inimícis, et a seductóribus tutávit illum : * Et dedit illi claritátem ætérnam.V.  Justum dedúxit Dóminus per vias rectas, et osténdit illi regnum Dei.
R.  Et dedit illi claritátem ætérnam.
R.  The Lord multiplied the fruit of his labours and defended him from his enemies, and kept him safe from those that lay in wait. * And gave him perpetual glory.
V.  The Lord guided the righteous in right paths, and shewed him the kingdom of God.
R.  And gave him perpetual glory.

V.  Jube domne, (Dómine) benedícere.
V.  Vouchsafe, Reverend Father (O Lord), thy blessing.
Benedíctio 5: Christus perpétuæ det nobis gáudia vitæ.R.  Amen.
Benediction 5: May Christ bestow upon us the joys of life eternal.
R.  Amen.
Lesson v
In religióne vitæ palæstra præclarióra virtútum exémpla mónachis præbuit, demissiónis potíssimum et obediéntiæ.  Abjectíssima quæque cœnóbii múnia véluti sibi própria deposcébat, ac sédulo obíbat.  Contéxtas a se spórtulas venditáre Damásci jussus, in ea nimírum civitáte ubi olim summis honóribus perfúnctus fúerat, irrisiónes ac ludíbria vulgi ávide captábat.  Obediéntiam ádeo cóluit, ut non modo ad quémlibet prǽsidum nutum præsto esset ; sed ne causam quidem eórum quæ præcipiebántur, quamvis árdua essent et insólita, quæréndam sibi umquam putárit.  Inter has virtútum exercitatiónes, cathólicum dogma de sanctárum imáginum cultu impénse tuéri numquam déstitit.  Quare ut ante Leónis Isáurici, ita póstmodum Constantíni Coprónymi advérsum se ódia vexationésque provocávit ; eo vel magis quod líbere arrogántiam imperatórum retúnderet, qui fídei negótia pertractáre, deque his senténtiam arbitrátu suo ferre audébant.
As a monk John set a bright example to all the others, especially as regarded lowliness and obedience.  He sought for the lowest offices in the community, as though they were in a peculiar sense his own, and fulfilled them with the greatest care.  When he was sent to Damascus to sell baskets made by himself, he welcomed the mockery and jests of the lowest classes in that city where he had before time been charged with the most honourable offices.  He was so devoted to obedience that he not only started up to obey every nod of his superiors, but also never thought it right to ask the reason of any duty laid upon him, however difficult or however strange it might be.  While thus living he never ceased earnestly to defend the Catholic doctrine as to the honouring of holy images.  For this reason he drew upon himself the hatred and persecution of the Emperor Constantine Copronymus, as he had first done that of the Emperor Leo the Isaurian, and this all the more because he freely rebuked the arrogance of these Emperors, who must needs take in hand matters concerning the faith, and pronounce sentence upon them according to their own judgment.
V.  Tu autem, Dómine, miserére nobis.
R.  Deo grátias.
V.  But thou, O Lord, have mercy upon us.
R.  Thanks be to God.
R.  Amávit eum Dóminus, et ornávit eum : stolam glóriæínduit eum, * Et ad portas paradísi coronávit eum.V.  Induit eum Dóminus lorícam fídei, et ornávit eum.
R.  Et ad portas paradísi coronávit eum.
R.  The Lord loved him and adorned him; he clothed him with a robe of glory : * And crowned him at the gates of Paradise.V.  The Lord hath put on him the breast-plate of faith, and hath adorned him.
R.  And crowned him at the gates of Paradise.

V.  Jube domne, (Dómine) benedícere.
V.  Vouchsafe, Reverend Father (O Lord), thy blessing.
Benedíctio 6: Ignem sui amóris accéndat Deus in córdibus nostris.
R.  Amen.
Benediction 6: May God enkindle in our hearts the fire of his holy love.
R.  Amen.
Lesson vi
Mirum sane est quam multa tum ad fidem tutándam, tum ad pietátem fovéndam, et solúta et adstrícta númeris oratióne, Joánnes elucubráverit ; dignus sane qui ab áltera Nicæna synodo amplíssimis láudibus celebrarétur, et ob áureum oratiónis flumen Chrysórrhoas appellarétur.  Neque solum contra Iconómachos orthodóxam fidem deféndit ; sed omnes ferme hæréticos, præsértim Acéphalos, Monothelítas, Theopaschítas strénue impugnávit.  Ecclésiæ jura potestatémque egrégie vindicávit.  Primátum Príncipis Apostolórum disertíssimis verbis asséruit ; ipsúmque ecclesiárum cólumen, infráctam petram, orbis terrárum magístrum et moderatórem sæpius nóminat.  Univérsa autem ejus scripta non modo eruditióne et doctrína præstant, sed étiam quemdam ingénuæ pietátis sensum prǽferunt, præcípue cum Genitrícis Dei laudes prǽdicat, quam singulári cultu et amóre prosequebátur.  Illud vero máxime in laudem Joánnis cedit, quod primus univérsam theologíam recto órdine comprehénderit et sancti Thomæ viam complanáverit ad sacram doctrínam tam præclára méthodo tractándam.  Tandem vir sanctíssimus méritis plenus devexáque jam ætáte, in pace Christi quiévit anno círciter septingentésimo quinquagésimo quarto.  Ejus Offícium et Missam Leo décimus tértius Póntifex máximus, áddito Doctóris título, univérsæ Ecclésiæ concéssit.
It is a marvel how many things John devised both for the protection of the faith, and for the encouragement of godliness, and expressed in his writings both in prose and verse.  He was worthy of the high praise which was given him by the Second Council of Nice.  On account of the golden streams of his eloquence, he was surnamed Chrysorrhoas, or John of the golden streams.  It was not against the enemies of holy images alone that he defended the orthodox faith.  He fought stoutly against the Acephali, the Monothelites, and the Theopaschites.  He maintained the laws and the power of the Church.  He taught with great learning the Primacy of the Prince of the Apostles, and many times calleth him the Pillar of the Churches, the unbroken rock, and the Teacher and Ruler of the world.  The whole of his writings are not only steeped in learning and teaching, but have a certain savour or simple piety, especially when he is praising the Mother of God, toward whom he was filled with a special reverence and love.  But the greatest praise of John is that he was the first who arranged in order a complete course of theology, and prepared the way in which holy Thomas Aquinas hath so clearly dealt with the whole body of sacred doctrine.  This truly holy man, full of days and good works, fell asleep in the peace of Christ about the year of salvation 754.  The supreme Pontiff, Leo XIII, established his office and Mass throughout the universal Church, whereof he also gave him the title of doctor.
V.  Tu autem, Dómine, miserére nobis.
R.  Deo grátias.
V.  But thou, O Lord, have mercy upon us.
R.  Thanks be to God.

The Cathedral of St. John Baptist, Damascus
now in the hands of the infidel and desecrated as a mosque
R.  Iste homo perfécit ómnia quæ locútus est ei Deus, et dixit ad eum : Ingrédere in réquiem meam : * Quia te vidi justum coram me ex ómnibus géntibus.
V.  Iste est, qui contémpsit vitam mundi, et pervénit ad cæléstia regna.
R.  Quia te vidi justum coram me ex ómnibus géntibus.
V.  Glória Patri, et Fílio, et Spirítui Sancto.
R.  Quia te vidi justum coram me ex ómnibus géntibus.
R.  This is he which did according to all that God commanded him ; and God said unto him : Enter thou into my rest : * For thee have I seen righteous before me among all people.V.  This is he which despised his life in this world, and is come unto an everlasting kingdom.
R.  For thee have I seen righteous before me among all people.V.  Glory be to the Father, and to the Son, and to the Holy Ghost.
R.  For thee have I seen righteous before me among all people.

The Tomb and Cave of St. John of Damascus

Saturday, March 26, 2011

Dr. Jeremy Holmes (Wyoming Catholic College) - Listening Exercises in Thomistic Latin


Share/Bookmark Link to: Internet Archive Search.

Friday, March 18, 2011

Meet the Doctors: St. Cyril of Jerusalem


Share/Bookmark From Matins of the Feast of St. Cyril of Jerusalem, Bishop, Confessor, Doctor of the Church
Online Source: www.breviary.net


Absolutio: Ipsíus píetas et misericórdia nos ádjuvet, qui cum Patre et Spíritu Sancto vivit et regnat in sæcula sæculórum.R.  Amen.
Absolution:  May his loving-kindness and mercy assist us.  Who, with the Father, and the Holy Ghost, liveth and reigneth, for ever and ever.
R.  Amen.
V.  Jube domne, (Dómine) benedícere.
V.  Vouchsafe, Reverend Father (O Lord), thy blessing.
Benedíctio 4: Deus Pater omnípotens sit nobis propítius et clemens.
R.  Amen.
Benediction 4:  May God the Father Almighty shew us his mercy and pity.
R.  Amen.
Lesson iv
Cyríllus Hierosolymitánus, a téneris annis divinárum Scripturárum stúdio summópere déditus, ádeo in eárum sciéntia profécit, ut orthodóxæ fídei strénuus assértor eváserit.  Monásticis institútis imbútus, perpétuæ continéntiæ omníque severióri vivéndi ratióni se addíctum vóluit.  Postquam  a sancto Máximo Hierosólymæ epíscopo présbyter ordinátus fuit, munus verbi divíni fidélibus prædicándi et catechúmenos edocéndi summa cum laude implévit, atque illas vere mirándas conscrípsit catechéses, quibus totam ecclesiásticam doctrínam dilúcide et copióse compléxus, síngula religiónis dógmata contra fídei hostes sólide propugnávit.  Ita vero in his enucleáte et distíncte disséruit, ut non solum jam exórtas hæreses, sed futúras étiam quasi præságiens evérterit ; quemádmodum præstitit asseréndo córporis et sánguinis Christi reálem præséntiam in mirábili Eucharístiæ sacraménto.  Vita autem functo sancto Máximo, a provínciæ epíscopis in illíus locum sufféctus est.
Cyril of Jerusalem was given to the study of the Sacred Scriptures from childhood, and made such progress that he became an eminent champion of the true faith.  He embraced the monastic state, and bound himself to perpetual chastity and austerity of life.  He was ordained priest by St. Maximus, bishop of Jerusalem, and undertook the work of preaching the divine word to the faithful and instructing the catechumens, in which he won the highest praise.  He was the author of those truly wonderful Catechetical Instructions which embrace clearly and fully all the teaching of the Church, and contain an excellent defence of the dogmas of religion against the enemies of the Faith.  His treatment of these subjects is so distinct and clear that he refuteth not only the heresies of his own time, but also, by a kind of foreknowledge, as it were, those which were to arise later.  And so he plainly teacheth the Real Presence of the Body and Blood of Christ in the wonderful Sacrament of the Eucharist.  On the death of St. Maximus, the bishops of the province chose Cyril in his place.
V.  Tu autem, Dómine, miserére nobis.
R.  Deo grátias.
V.  But thou, O Lord, have mercy upon us.
R.  Thanks be to God.
R.  Invéni David servum meum, óleo sancto meo unxi eum :* Manus enim mea auxiliábitur ei.
V.  Nihil profíciet inimícus in eo, et fílius iniquitátis non nocébit ei.
R.  Manus enim mea auxiliábitur ei.
R.  I have found David my servant, with my holy oil have I anointed him. * My hand shall hold him fast.
V.  The enemy shall not be able to do him violence ; the son of wickedness shall not hurt him.
R.  My hand shall hold him fast.

V.  Jube domne, (Dómine) benedícere.
V.  Vouchsafe, Reverend Father (O Lord), thy blessing.
Benedíctio 5: Christus perpétuæ det nobis gáudia vitæ.R.  Amen.
Benediction 5: May Christ bestow upon us the joys of life eternal.
R.  Amen.
Lesson v

The Armenian Cathedral of St. James, Jerusalem
In episcopátu injúrias multas et calamitátes, non secus ac beátus Athanásius, cui coævus erat, ab Arianórum factiónibus fídei causa perpéssus fuit.  Hi enim ægre feréntes Cyríllum veheménter hærésibus obsístere, ipsum calúmniis aggrediúntur, et in conciliábulo depósitum e sua Sede detúrbant.  Quorum furóri ut se subtráheret, Tarsum Cilíciæ aufúgit, et quoad vixit Constántius, exsílii rigórem pértulit.  Post illíus mortem, Juliáno Apóstata ad impérium evécto, Hierosólymam redíre pótuit, ubi ardénti zelo gregi suo ab erróribus et a vítiis revocándo óperam navávit.  Sed íterum, Valénte imperatóre, exsuláre coáctus est, donec, réddita Ecclésiæ pace per Theodósium Magnum, et Arianórum crudelitáte audaciáque représsa, ab eódem imperatóre tamquam fortíssimus Christi athléta honóribus suscéptus, suæ Sedi restitútus fuit.  Quam strénue et sancte sublímis offícii sui múnia impléverit, luculénter appáret ex florénti tunc témporis Hierosolymitánæ ecclésiæ statu, quem sanctus Basilíus loca sancta venerátus, ibi aliquámdiu commorátus, descríbit.
As bishop he endured, like blessed Athanasius, his contemporary, many wrongs and sufferings for the sake of the faith at the hands of the Arians.  They could not bear his strenuous opposition to their heresy, and thus assailed him with calumnies, deposed him in a pseudo-council, and drove him from his see.  To escape their rage he fled to Tarsus in Cilicia and, as long as Constantius lived, he bore the hardships of exile.  On his death, and at the ascension of Julian the Apostate to the empire, Cyril was able to return to Jerusalem, where he set himself, with burning zeal, to deliver his flock from errors and vices.  He was driven into exile a second time, under the emperor Valens, but when peace was restored to the Church by Theodosius the Great, and the cruelty and insolence of the Arians were restrained, he was received with honour by the emperor as a most valiant soldier of Christ, and restored to his see.  With what earnestness and holiness he fulfilled the duties of his exalted office was proved by the flourishing state of the church at Jerusalem at that time, as described by St. Basil who spent some time there on a pilgrimage to the holy places.
V.  Tu autem, Dómine, miserére nobis.
R.  Deo grátias.
V.  But thou, O Lord, have mercy upon us.
R.  Thanks be to God.
R.  Pósui adjutórium super poténtem, et exaltávi eléctum de plebe mea : * Manus enim mea auxiliábitur ei.
V.  Invéni David servum meum, óleo sancto meo unxi eum.
R.  Manus enim mea auxiliábitur ei.
R.  I have laid help upon one that is mighty, I have exalted one chosen out of the people. * My hand shall hold him fast.V.  I have found David, my servant, with my holy oil have I anointed him.
R.  My hand shall hold him fast.

V.  Jube domne, (Dómine) benedícere.
V.  Vouchsafe, Reverend Father (O Lord), thy blessing.
Benedíctio 6: Ignem sui amóris accéndat Deus in córdibus nostris.
R.  Amen.
Benediction 6: May God enkindle in our hearts the fire of his holy love.
R.  Amen.
Lesson vi

The Church of Hagia Eirene (Holy Peace) in Constantinople (Istanbul)
where the Council of Constantinople was held in A.D. 381
Venerándi hujus præsulis sanctitátem cæléstibus signis a Deo fuísse illustrátam, memóriæ tráditum accépimus.  Inter hæc recensétur præclára Crucis, solis rádiis fulgentióris apparítio, quæ episcopátus ejus inítia decorávit.  Hujúsmodi prodígii éthnici et christiáni testes oculáres fuérunt cum ipso Cyríllo, qui, grátiis primum in Ecclésia Deo rédditis, illud per epístolam Constántio imperatóri narrávit.  Nec minus admiratióne dignum, quod Judæis, templum a Tito evérsum restauráre ex ímpio imperatóris Juliáni jussu conántibus, evénit.  Veheménti enim terræmótu obórto, et ingéntibus flammárum globis e terra erumpéntibus, ómnia ópera ignis consúmpsit, ita ut Judæi et Juliánus detérriti ab incépto destíterint ; prout scílicet indubitánter futúrum Cyríllus prædíxerat.  Qui demum paulo ante óbitum Concílio œcuménico Constantinopolitáno intérfuit, in quo Macedónii hæresis, et íterum Ariána condemnáta est.  Ac Jerúsalem inde revérsus, fere septuagenárius, trigésimo quinto sui episcopátus anno, sancto fine quiévit.  Ejus Offícium ac Missam Leo décimus tértius Póntifex máximus ab univérsa Ecclésia celebrári mandávit.
Tradition stateth that God made the holiness of this venerable prelate illustrious by signs from heaven.  Among these is numbered the apparition of a shining cross, brighter than the rays of the sun, which was seen at the beginning of his episcopate.  Not only Cyril himself, but pagans and Christians alike were witnesses of this miracle which Cyril, after having given thanks unto God in church, announced by letter to Constantius.  A thing no less wonderful came to pass when the Jews were commanded by the impious emperor Julian to restore the Temple which had been destroyed by Titus.  A violent earthquake occurred, and great balls of fire burst out of the earth, and consumed all the works, so that Julian and the Jews were struck with terror and gave up their plan ; all of which had been clearly foretold by Cyril.  A little while before his death, he was present at the ecumenical Council of Constantinople, where the heresies of Macedonius, and, once more, that of Arius were condemned.  After his return to Jerusalem, being nearly seventy years old, he died a holy death in the thirty-fifth year of his episcopate.  Pope Leo XIII ordered that his Office and Mass should be said throughout the Universal Church.
V.  Tu autem, Dómine, miserére nobis.
R.  Deo grátias.
V.  But thou, O Lord, have mercy upon us.
R.  Thanks be to God.
R.  Iste est, qui ante Deum magnas virtútes operátus est, et omnis terra doctrína ejus repléta est : * Ipse intercédat pro peccátis ómnium populórum.V.  Iste est, qui contémpsit vitam mundi, et pervénit ad cæléstia regna.
R.  Ipse intercédat pro peccátis ómnium populórum.V.  Glória Patri, et Fílio, et Spirítui Sancto.
R.  Ipse intercédat pro peccátis ómnium populórum.
R.  This is he who wrought mighty deeds and valiant in the sight of God, and all the earth is filled with his doctrine: *May his intercession avail for the sins of all the people.V.  He was a man who despised the life of the world and attained unto the kingdom of heaven.
R.  May his intercession avail for the sins of all the people.V.  Glory be to the Father, and to the Son, and to the Holy Ghost.
R.  May his intercession avail for the sins of all the people.

Thursday, March 17, 2011

Gardeil, OP on Aristotelian Mixtures as Substances


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From H.D. Gardeil, OP - An Introduction to the Philosophy of St. Thomas Aquinas, Vol. 2: Cosmology, pp. 37-39 (available from ITOPL):



Saturday, March 12, 2011

Belloc, A Liberal?


Share/Bookmark An eye-opening article from Tradition in Action.


Part one.
Part two.
Part three.


Monday, March 07, 2011

G.K. Chesterton's Saint Thomas Aquinas: "The Dumb Ox" (Biography)


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Download the PDF free here.
Happy Feast Day!!!

Ite ad Thomam Tours: The Life and Work of St. Thomas, an Overview


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Navigate the interactive map!


View St. Thomas Aquinas in a larger map

Important Places in the Life of St. Thomas Aquinas:


Formative Years:


1225-30: Birth and childhood in Roccasecca.
1230-39: Benedictine oblate at Montecassino.
1239-44: Education at Naples, where he takes the Dominican habit.
1244: Intercepted by family at Acquapendente, imprisoned in Monte San Giovanni and later Roccasecca.
1245-48: Studies under St. Albert at Paris.
1248-52: Works for St. Albert as Bachelor in Cologne.

Productive Years:

1252-56: Lectured as bachelor on the Sentences at Paris.
1256-59: Master in Sacra Pagina at Paris.
1259-61: Dominican Houses of Studies, Naples.
1261-65Orvieto.
1265-68: Sancta Sabina, Rome.
1268-72: Master of Theology at Paris.


Transitus into Heaven:


1272-73: Dominican House of Studies, Naples; vision/"straw".
1274: Sojourn towards Lyons, accident at Teano, stays at Maenza, death in Fossanova.

1323: Canonization in Avignon.
1369: Translation of relics to Toulouse.
1567: Named doctor of the Church in Rome.


Chronological/Geographical Table of Aquinas' Works 
From the Marietti edition of the Expositio in Libros Peri hermeneias et Posteriorum (with places added):
NB.  For more biographical details, and a more updated chronology of his works, see Jean Pierre Torrel, St Thomas Aquinas, Vol. 1.

The Real Feast Day of St. Thomas Aquinas, March 7


Share/Bookmark From Matins of the Feast of St. Thomas Aquinas, Confessor, Doctor of the Church
Online Source: www.breviary.net


Absolutio: Ipsíus píetas et misericórdia nos ádjuvet, qui cum Patre et Spíritu Sancto vivit et regnat in sæcula sæculórum.R.  Amen.
Absolution:  May his loving-kindness and mercy assist us.  Who, with the Father, and the Holy Ghost, liveth and reigneth, for ever and ever.
R.  Amen.
V.  Jube domne, (Dómine) benedícere.
V.  Vouchsafe, Reverend Father (O Lord), thy blessing.
Benedíctio 4: Deus Pater omnípotens sit nobis propítius et clemens.
R.  Amen.
Benediction 4:  May God the Father Almighty shew us his mercy and pity.
R.  Amen.
Lesson iv
Præclárum christiáni orbis decus et Ecclésiæ lumen, beatíssimus vir Thomas, Landúlpho cómite Aquináte et Theodóra Neapolitána, nobílibus paréntibus natus, futúræ in Deíparam devotiónis afféctum adhuc infántulus osténdit.  Nam chártulam ab eo invéntam, in qua salutátio Angélica scripta erat, frustra adniténte nutríce, compréssa manu válide retínuit, et a matre per vim abréptam, plorátu et gestu repétiit, ac mox rédditam deglutívit.  Quintum annum agens, mónachis sancti Benedícti Cassinátibus custodiéndus tráditur.  Inde Neápolim studiórum causa missus, jam adoléscens fratrum Prædicatórum órdinem suscépit.  Sed matre ac frátribus id indígne feréntibus, Lutétiam Parisiórum míttitur.  Quem fratres in itínere per vim raptum, in arcem castri sancti Joánnis perdúcunt : ubi várie exagitátus, ut sanctum propósitum mutáret, mulíerem étiam, quæ ad labefactándam ejus constántiam introdúcta fúerat, titióne fugávit.  Mox beátus júvenis, fléxis génibus ante signum crucis orans, ibíque somno corréptus, per quiétem sentíre visus est sibi ab Angelis constríngi lumbos ; quo ex témpore omni póstea libídinis sensu cáruit.  Soróribus, quæ ut eum a pio consílio removérent, in castrum vénerant, persuásit, ut, contémptis curis sæculáribus, ad exercitatiónem cæléstis vitæ se conférrent.
That splendid adornment of the Christian world and light of the Church, blessed Thomas Aquinas, was the son of Landulph, Earl of Aquino, and Theodora of Naples, his wife, being nobly descended on both sides, and even as an infant gave token of the love which he afterwards bore to the Mother of God.  He found a little bit of paper upon which was written the Angelic Salutation, and held it firm in his hand in spite of the efforts of his wet-nurse ; his mother took it away by force, but he cried and stretched out for it, and when she gave it back to him, he swallowed it.  When he was only four years old, he was given into the keeping of the Benedictine monks of Monte Cassino.  He was thence sent to Naples to study, and there, while very young, entered the Order of Friars Preachers.  This displeased his mother and brothers, and he left Naples for Paris.  When he was on his journey his brothers met him, and carried him by force to the castle of Monte San Giovanni, where they imprisoned him in the keep.  Here they used every means to break him of his intention, and at last brought a woman into his room to try to overcome his purity.  The youth drove her out with a fire-brand.  When he was alone he knelt down before the figure of the Cross, and there he fell asleep.  As he slept, it seemed to him that angels came and girded his loins : and from this time he never felt the least sexual inclination.  His sisters came to the castle to beseech him to give up his purpose of leaving the world, but he so worked on them by his godly exhortations, that both of them ever after set no value on earthly things, and busied themselves rather with heavenly.
V.  Tu autem, Dómine, miserére nobis.
R.  Deo grátias.
V.  But thou, O Lord, have mercy upon us.
R.  Thanks be to God.

The Castle of Monte San Giovanni
R.  Honéstum fecit illum Dóminus, et custodívit eum ab inimícis, et a seductóribus tutávit illum : * Et dedit illi claritátem ætérnam.V.  Justum dedúxit Dóminus per vias rectas, et osténdit illi regnum Dei.
R.  Et dedit illi claritátem ætérnam.
R.  The Lord multiplied the fruit of his labours and defended him from his enemies, and kept him safe from those that lay in wait. * And gave him perpetual glory.
V.  The Lord guided the righteous in right paths, and shewed him the kingdom of God.
R.  And gave him perpetual glory.

V.  Jube domne, (Dómine) benedícere.
V.  Vouchsafe, Reverend Father (O Lord), thy blessing.
Benedíctio 5: Christus perpétuæ det nobis gáudia vitæ.R.  Amen.
Benediction 5: May Christ bestow upon us the joys of life eternal.
R.  Amen.
Lesson v
Emíssus e castro per fenéstram, Neápolim redúcitur ; unde Romam, póstea Parísium a fratre  Joánne Theutónico, órdinis Prædicatórum generáli magístro, ductus, Albérto Magno doctóre, philosophíæ ac theologíæ óperam dedit.  Vigínti quinque annos natus, magíster est appellátus, publicéque philósophos ac theólogos summa cum laude est interpretátus.  Numquam se lectióni aut scriptióni dedit, nisi post oratiónem.  In difficultátibus locórum sacræ Scriptúræ, ad oratiónem jejúnium adhibébat.  Quin étiam sodáli suo fratri Regináldo dícere solébat, quidquid sciret non tam stúdio aut labóre suo peperísse, quam divínitus tráditum accepísse.  Neápoli cum ad imáginem Crucifíxi veheméntius oráret, hanc vocem audívit : Bene scripsísti de me, Thoma ; quam ergo mercédem accípies?  Cui ille : Non áliam, Dómine, nisi teípsum.  Collatiónes Patrum assídue pervolutábat ; et nullum fuit scriptórum genus, in quo non esset diligentíssime versátus.  Scripta ejus et multitúdine, et varietáte, et facilitáte explicándi res diffíciles ádeo excéllunt, ut ubérrima atque incorrúpta illíus doctrína, cum revelátis veritátibus mire conséntiens, aptíssima sit ad ómnium témporum erróres pervincéndos.
Being let down from a window, Thomas escaped out of the castle of Monte San Giovanni, and returned to Naples.  Thence he went first to Rome, and then to Paris, in company of Brother John the German, then Master-General of the Friars Preachers.  At Paris he studied Philosophy and Theology under Albert the Great Doctor.  At the age of twenty-five years he took the degree of Master, and gave public disquisitions on the Philosophers and Theologians with great distinction.  He never set himself to read or write till he had first prayed, and when he was about to take in hand a hard passage of the Holy Scriptures, he fasted also.  Hence he was wont to say to Brother Reginald his comrade, that whatever he knew, he had learnt, not to much from his own labour and study, as from the inspiration of God.  At Naples he was once kneeling in very earnest prayer before an image of Christ Crucified, when he head a voice which said : Thomas, thou hast written well of me.  What reward wilt thou that I give thee?  He answered : None other, Lord, but thyself.  He studied most carefully the works of the Fathers, and there was no kind of author in which he was not well read.  His own writings are so wonderful, both because of their number, their variety, and the clearness of his explanations of hard things, that his rich and pure teaching, marvellously consonant with revealed truth, is an admirable antidote for the errors of all times.
V.  Tu autem, Dómine, miserére nobis.
R.  Deo grátias.
V.  But thou, O Lord, have mercy upon us.
R.  Thanks be to God.
R.  Amávit eum Dóminus, et ornávit eum : stolam glóriæ índuit eum, * Et ad portas paradísi coronávit eum.V.  Induit eum Dóminus lorícam fídei, et ornávit eum.
R.  Et ad portas paradísi coronávit eum.
R.  The Lord loved him and adorned him; he clothed him with a robe of glory : * And crowned him at the gates of Paradise.V.  The Lord hath put on him the breast-plate of faith, and hath adorned him.
R.  And crowned him at the gates of Paradise.

V.  Jube domne, (Dómine) benedícere.
V.  Vouchsafe, Reverend Father (O Lord), thy blessing.
Benedíctio 6: Ignem sui amóris accéndat Deus in córdibus nostris.
R.  Amen.
Benediction 6: May God enkindle in our hearts the fire of his holy love.
R.  Amen.
Lesson vi
A summo Pontífice Urbáno quarto Romam vocátus, ejus jussu ecclesiásticum lucubrávit Offícium in Córporis Christi solemnitáte celebrándum : oblátos vero honóres et Neapolitánum archiepiscopátum, étiam deferénte Cleménte quarto, recusávit.  A prædicatióne divíni verbi non desistébat ; quod cum fáceret per octávam Paschæ in basílica sancti Petri, mulíerem, quæ ejus fímbriam tetígerat, a fluxu sánguinis liberávit.  Missus a beáto Gregório décimo ad concílium Lugdunénse, in monastério Fossæ Novæ in morbum íncidit, ubi ægrótus Cántica canticórum explanávit.  Ibídem óbiit quinquagenárius, anno salútis millésimo ducentésimo septuagésimo quarto, Nonis Mártii.  Miráculis étiam mórtuus cláruit ; quibus probátis, a Joánne vigésimo secúndo in Sanctórum númerum relátus est, anno millésimo tercentésimo vigésimo tértio, transláto póstea ejus córpore Tolósam, ex mandáto beáti Urbáni quinti.  Cum sanctis angélicis spirítibus non minus innocéntia quam ingénio comparátus, Doctóris Angélici nomen jure est adéptus, eídem auctoritáte sancti Pii quinti confirmátum.  Leo autem décimus tértius, libentíssime excípiens postulatiónes et vota ómnium pene Sacrórum antístitum orbis cathólici, ad tot præcípue philosophicórum systématum a veritáte aberrántium luem propulsándam, ad increménta scientiárum et commúnem humáni géneris utilitátem, eum, ex sacrórum Rítuum Congregatiónis consúlto, per apostólicas lítteras cæléstem patrónum scholárum ómnium catholicárum declarávit et instítuit.
The Supreme Pontiff Urban IV sent for him to Rome, and at his command he composed the Church Office for the feast of Corpus Christi.  The Pope could not persuade him to accept any dignity.  Pope Clement IV also offered him the Archbishoprick of Naples, but he refused it.  He did not neglect the preaching of the Word of God.  Once while he was giving a course of sermons in the Basilica of St. Peter, during the Octave of Easter, a woman who had an issue of blood was healed by touching the hem of his garment.  He was sent by blessed Gregory X to the Council of Lyons, but fell sick on his way at the Abbey of Fossanova, and there during his illness he made an exposition of the Song of Songs.  There he died on the 7th day of March, in the year of salvation 1274, aged fifty years.  He was distinguished for miracles even after his death, and on proof of these Pope John XXII added his name to those of the Saints in the year 1323.  His body was afterwards carried to Toulouse by command of blessed Urban V.  He has been compared to an angel, both on account of his innocency and of his intellectual power, and has hence been deservedly termed the Angelic Doctor.  The use of which title as applied to him was approved by the authority of holy Pius V.  Leo XIII, cheerfully agreeing to the prayers and wishes of nearly all the bishops of the Catholic world, and in conformity with a vote of the Sacred Congregation of Rites, by his Apostolic letters declared and recognized Thomas Aquinas as the patron in heaven of all Catholic schools, as an antidote to the plague of so many false systems, especially of philosophy, for the increase of scientific knowledge, and for the common good of all mankind.
V.  Tu autem, Dómine, miserére nobis.
R.  Deo grátias.
V.  But thou, O Lord, have mercy upon us.
R.  Thanks be to God.

The Triumph of St. Thomas, in the Spanish Chapel of the Church of Santa María Novella, Florence, Italy
R.  Iste homo perfécit ómnia quæ locútus est ei Deus, et dixit ad eum : Ingrédere in réquiem meam : * Quia te vidi justum coram me ex ómnibus géntibus.
V.  Iste est, qui contémpsit vitam mundi, et pervénit ad cæléstia regna.
R.  Quia te vidi justum coram me ex ómnibus géntibus.
V.  Glória Patri, et Fílio, et Spirítui Sancto.
R.  Quia te vidi justum coram me ex ómnibus géntibus.
R.  This is he which did according to all that God commanded him ; and God said unto him : Enter thou into my rest : * For thee have I seen righteous before me among all people.V.  This is he which despised his life in this world, and is come unto an everlasting kingdom.
R.  For thee have I seen righteous before me among all people.V.  Glory be to the Father, and to the Son, and to the Holy Ghost.
R.  For thee have I seen righteous before me among all people.

St. Thomas Aquinas confounds the heretics with his writings

Enthymemes


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Sunday, March 06, 2011

The Fifth Way in Syllogistic Form


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I. From ST I.2.3c:

The fifth way is taken from the governance of the world. We see that things which lack intelligence, such as natural bodies, act for an end, and this is evident from their acting always, or nearly always, in the same way, so as to obtain the best result. Hence it is plain that not fortuitously, but designedly, do they achieve their end. Now whatever lacks intelligence cannot move towards an end, unless it be directed by some being endowed with knowledge and intelligence; as the arrow is shot to its mark by the archer. Therefore some intelligent being exists by whom all natural things are directed to their end; and this being we call God.


II. The Argument in Syllogistic Form:

Major: If something that lacks intelligence is moved towards an end (m), then it is directed by some being endowed with knowledge and intelligence (i).
Minor: We see that things which lack intelligence are moved towards an end (m).
Conclusion: Therefore, all natural things that lack intelligence are directed to their end by some being endowed with knowledge and intelligence--and this being we call 'God' (i).

Example of the Major: As the arrow is shot to its mark by the archer.
Example of the Minor: Natural bodies. This is evident from their acting always, or nearly always, in the same way, so as to obtain the best result. Hence it is plain that not fortuitously, but designedly, do they achieve their end.


III. Syllogistic Structure (simple modus ponens):
Major: m ---> i
Minor: m
Conclusion: i


IV. See also:

Saturday, March 05, 2011

Novus, -a, -um, adj. "New, strange, unusual, extraordinary; a novelty, a revolution."


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I. WHAT THE DICTIONARIES SAY:

A. From The Latin Dictionary:

  Translation: New, strange


B. From William Whitaker's Words (Notre Dame site):
nov.us               ADJ    1 1 NOM S M POS             
novus, nova -um, novior -or -us, novissimus -a -um  ADJ   [XXXAX]  new, fresh, young; unusual, extraordinary; (novae res, f. pl. = revolu- tion).

C. From Latin Dictionary and Grammar Aid (Notre Dame site):

novus -a -um [new , fresh, young; fresh, inexperienced; revived, refreshed; novel, unusual, extraordinary]; 'novus homo', [the first of a family to hold curule office]; 'novae res', [political changes, a revolution]; 'novae tabulae', [new account books (i.e. a cancellation of debts)]; N. as subst., [a new thing, news, a novelty]. Adv. nove, [in a new or unusual way]. Superl. novissimus -a -um, [latest, last, extreme]; 'agmen', [the rear]; adv. novissime, [lately, lastly, in the last place].


II. APPLICATION: So, perhaps we can translate novus ordo Missae as "the strange order of Mass," "the unusual order of Mass," "the novel order of Mass," "the revolutionary order of Mass, or, better yet, "the extraordinary order of Mass." It appears that any of these would be a more fitting, and still perfectly correct translation... especially if we abide by CIEL's principles!

Ite ad Thomam Recommends...


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Friday, March 04, 2011

God is the Prime Mover of All Things, Even the Will's Free Acts


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Quaestiones disputatae de malo 6.1 ad 3 (my translation):

God immutably moves our will on account of the efficacy of His moving power, which cannot fail; but on account of the nature of the will that is moved, which relates indifferently to diverse things, necessity is not introduced; just as in all things divine providence operates infallibly; and yet from contingent causes effects are contingently produced, insofar as God moves all things proportionately, each being according to its mode.

Deus movet quidem voluntatem immutabiliter propter efficaciam virtutis moventis, quae deficere non potest; sed propter naturam voluntatis motae, quae indifferenter se habet ad diversa, non inducitur necessitas, sed manet libertas; sicut etiam in omnibus providentia divina infallibiliter operatur; et tamen a causis contingentibus proveniunt effectus contingenter, in quantum Deus omnia movet proportionabiliter, unumquodque secundum suum modum.



ST I.83.1: Whether man has free-will? (My translation, emphasis added).

[Argument 3]. Further, that is free which is cause of itself, as is said in the first book of the Metaphysics [ch. 2].  What is moved by another, therefore, is not free.  But God moves the will, for it is said in Proverbs 21[:1], "The heart of the king is in the hand of the Lord; whithersoever He will He shall turn it," and in Philippians 2[:13], "It is God Who worketh in you both to will and to accomplish."

To the 3rd, it must be said that the free will is a cause of its motion, because man through his free will moves himself to acting.  But it does not necessarily belong to freedom that it be its own first cause.  God, therefore, is the first cause that moves both natural and voluntary causes.  And just as, by moving natural causes, he does not take away the fact that their acts are natural; so by moving voluntary causes, he does not take away the fact that their actions are voluntary, but rather makes this very thing [i.e., being voluntary] in them, for he operates in each thing according to what is proper to it.


Praeterea, liberum est quod sui causa est, ut dicitur in I Metaphys. Quod ergo movetur ab alio, non est liberum. Sed Deus movet voluntatem, dicitur enim Prov. XXI, cor regis in manu Dei, et quocumque voluerit vertet illud; et Philipp. II, Deus est qui operatur in nobis velle et perficere. Ergo homo non est liberi arbitrii.


Ad tertium dicendum quod liberum arbitrium est causa sui motus, quia homo per liberum arbitrium seipsum movet ad agendum. Non tamen hoc est de necessitate libertatis, quod sit prima causa sui id quod liberum est, sicut nec ad hoc quod aliquid sit causa alterius, requiritur quod sit prima causa eius. Deus igitur est prima causa movens et naturales causas et voluntarias. Et sicut naturalibus causis, movendo eas, non aufert quin actus earum sint naturales; ita movendo causas voluntarias, non aufert quin actiones earum sint voluntariae, sed potius hoc in eis facit, operatur enim in unoquoque secundum eius proprietatem.



ST I.83.1 arg 3, ad 3, in Syllogistic Format (in my own words):

Argument 3:

Major: What is moved by another is not free.
Minor: The will is moved by another.
Conclusion: Therefore, the will is not free.

Proof of the Major: "What is free is moved by itself" (Metaph. I.2).  Therefore, what is moved by another is not free. Proof of the Minor: God moves the will (cf. Prov. 21:1; Phil. 2:13).  And the conclusion follows.


St. Thomas' Reply:

I concede the minor.

I distinguish the major.  That what is moved by another as by its only cause is not free, I concede; but that what is moved by another as by its first cause is not free, I deny.  God is the primary cause of the will's actions, and the will is the secondary cause of its actions.  God's primary causality does not take away their being free, but rather is the cause of all of their being, including their being free--just as his primary causality of natural actions does not take away their being nature, but rather is the cause of their being, including their being natural.  For God causes all things to be in their own way, natural things to be natural, and voluntary things to be voluntary.

And I deny the conclusion.