Monday, November 30, 2009

In Festo Sanctae Andreae (Nov. 30), Acta

From Matins of the Feast of St. Andrew, Apostle (Second Nocturn)

Lesson iv
Andréas Apóstolus, Bethsáidæ natus, qui est Galilææ vicus, frater Petri, discípulus Joánnis Baptístæ, cum eum de Christo dicéntem audísset : Ecce Agnus Dei ; secútus Jesum, fratrem quoque suum ad eúmdem perdúxit.  Cum póstea una cum fratre piscarétur in mari Galilææ, ambo a prætereúnte Christo Dómino ante álios Apóstolos vocáti illis verbis : Veníte post me, fáciam vos fíeri piscatóres hóminum ; nullam interponéntes moram, et relíctis rétibus, secúti sunt eum.  Post cujus passiónem et resurrectiónem, Andréas, cum in Scythiam Európæ, quæ ei província ad Christi fidem disseminándam obtígerat, venísset, deínde Epírum ac Thráciam peragrásset ; doctrína et miráculis innumerábiles hómines ad Christum convértit.  Post, Patras Achájæ proféctus, et in ea urbe plúrimis ad veritátem evangélicam perdúctis, Ægéam procónsulem, prædicatióni evangélicæ resisténtem, libérrime increpávit, quod, qui judex hóminum habéri vellet, Christum Deum ómnium júdicem, a dæmónibus elúsus, non agnósceret.
The Apostle Andrew was born at Bethsaida, a town of Galilee, and was the brother of Peter.  He was a disciple of John the Baptist, and heard him say of Christ, Behold the Lamb of God, whereupon he immediately followed Jesus, bringing his brother also with him.   Some while after, they were both fishing in the Sea of Galilee, and the Lord Christ, going by, called them both, before any other of the Apostles, in the words, Follow me, and I will make you fishers of men.  They made no delay, but left their nets, and followed him.  After the death and Resurrection of Christ, Andrew was allotted Scythia as the province of his preaching, and, after labouring there, he went through Epirus and Thrace, where he turned vast multitudes to Christ by his teaching and miracles.  Finally he went to Patras in Achaia, and there also he brought many to the knowledge of Gospel truth.  Aegeas the Proconsul resisted the preaching of the Gospel, and the Apostle freely rebuked him, bidding him know that while he held himself a judge of his fellow men, he was himself hindered by devils from knowing Christ our God, the Judge of all.
V.  Tu autem, Dómine, miserére nobis.
R.  Deo grátias.
V.  But thou, O Lord, have mercy upon us.
R.  Thanks be to God.
R.  Homo Dei ducebátur ut crucifígerent eum : pópulus autem clamábat voce magna, dicens : *Innocens ejus sanguis sine causa damnátur.
V.  Cumque dúcerent eum ut crucifigerétur, factus est concúrsus populórum clamántium et dicéntium.
R.  Innocens ejus sanguis sine causa damnátur.
R.  The man of God was led to be crucified, and the people cried out with a loud voice, saying : *  The innocent blood of this just person is condemned without a cause.
V.  And when they led him out to crucify him, all the people ran together and cried, saying.
R.  The innocent blood of this just person is condemned without a cause.

V.  Jube domne, (Dómine) benedícere.
V.  Vouchsafe, Reverend Father (O Lord), thy blessing.
Benedíctio 5: Christus perpétuæ det nobis gáudia vitæ.
R.  Amen.

Benediction 5: May Christ bestow upon us the joys of life eternal.
R.  Amen.

Lesson v
Tum Ægéas irátus, Désine, inquit, Christum jactáre, cui simília verba nihil profuérunt, quóminus a Judæis crucifigerétur.  Andréam vero de Christo nihilóminus líbere prædicántem quod pro salúte humáni géneris se crucifigéndum obtulísset, ímpia oratióne interpéllat, ac demum hortátur, ut sibi cónsulens, diis velit immoláre.  Cui Andréas : Ego omnipoténti Deo, qui unus et verus est, ímmolo quotídie, non taurórum carnes, nec hircórum sánguinem, sed immaculátum Agnum in altári ; cujus carnem posteáquam omnis pópulus credéntium manducáverit, Agnus, qui sacrificátus est, ínteger perservérat et vivus.  Quam ob rem ira accénsus Ægéas, jubet dum in cárcerem detrúdi unde pópulus Andréam fácile liberásset, nisi ipse sedásset multitúdinem, veheméntius rogans, ne se ad optatíssimam martyrii corónam properántem impedírent.
Then Aegeas, being angry, answered him, Boast no more of this thy Christ.  He spake words even such as thine, but they availed him not, and he was crucified by the Jews.  Whereto Andrew boldly answered that Christ had given himself up to die for man's salvation ; but the Proconsul blasphemously interrupted him, and bade him look to himself, and sacrifice to the gods.  Then said Andrew, We have an altar, whereon day by day I offer up to God, the Almighty, the One, and the True, not the flesh of bulls nor the blood of goats, but a Lamb without spot : and when all they that believe have eaten of the Flesh thereof, the Lamb that was slain abideth whole and liveth.  Then Aegeas being filled with wrath, bound the Apostle in prison.  Now, the people would have delivered him, but he himself calmed the multitude, and earnestly besought them not to take away from him the crown of martyrdom, for which he longed and which was now drawing near.
V.  Tu autem, Dómine, miserére nobis.
R.  Deo grátias.
V.  But thou, O Lord, have mercy upon us.
R.  Thanks be to God.
R.  O bona crux, quæ decórem et pulchritúdinem de membris Dómini suscepísti ; áccipe me ab homínibus, et redde me magístro meo : * Ut per te me recípiat, qui per te me redémit.
V.  Beátus Andréas expánsis mánibus ad cælum orábat, dicens : Salva me, bona crux.
R.  Ut per te me recípiat, qui per te me redémit.
R.  O gracious cross, made so fair and goodly by the sweet body of my Lord, welcome me from amongst men, and join me anew to my Master, * That as by thee he redeemed me, so by thee also he may take me unto himself.
V.  Blessed Andrew stretched forth his hands to heaven, praying : O good cross, be my salvation.
R.  That as by thee he redeemed me, so by thee also he may take me unto himself.

V.  Jube domne, (Dómine) benedícere.
V.  Vouchsafe, Reverend Father (O Lord), thy blessing.
Benedíctio 6: Ignem sui amóris accéndat Deus in córdibus nostris.
R.  Amen.

Benediction 6: May God enkindle in our hearts the fire of his holy love.
R.  Amen.

Lesson vi
Igitur paulo post in tribúnal  prodúctum, cumÆgéas crucis extolléntem mystéria sibíque suam impietátem exprobrántem diútius ferre non posset, in crucem tolli, et Christi mortem imitári jussit.  Addúctus Andréas ad locum martyrii, cum crucem vidísset, longe exclamáre cœpit : O bona crux, quæ decórem ex membris Dómini suscepísti, diu desideráta, sollícite amáta, sine intermissióne quæsíta, et aliquándo cupiénti ánimo præparáta : áccipe me ab homínibus, et redde me magístro meo ; ut per te me recípiat, qui per te me redémit.  Itaque cruci affíxus est : in qua bíduum vivus pendens, et Christi fidem prædicáre numquam intermíttens, ad eum migrávit, cujus mortis similitúdinem concupíerat.  Quæ ómnia presbyteri et diáconi Achájæ, qui ejus passiónem scripsérunt, se ita ut commemoráta sunt, audísse et vidísse testántur.  Ejus ossa primum Constantíno imperatóre Constantinópolim, deínde Amálphim transláta sunt.  Caput, Pio secúndo Pontífice, Romam allátum, in basílica sancti Petri collocátum est.
Some short while after, he was brought before the judgment seat, where he extolled the mystery of the cross, and rebuked Aegeas for his ungodliness.  Then Aegeas could bear with him no longer, but commanded him to be crucified, in imitation of Christ.  Andrew, then, was led to the place of martyrdom, and, as soon as he came in sight of the cross, he cried out : O precious cross, made so fair and goodly by the sweet body of my Lord, how long have I desired thee! how warmly have I loved thee! how constantly have I sought thee!  And, now that thou art come to me, how is my soul drawn to thee!  Welcome me from amongst men, and join me anew to my Master, that as by thee he redeemed me, so by thee also he may take me unto himself.  So he was fastened to the cross, whereon he hung living for two days, during which time he ceased not to preach the faith of Christ, and, finally, passed into the Presence of him the likeness of whose death he had loved so well.  All the above particulars of his last sufferings were written by the Priests and Deacons of Achaia, who bear witness to them of their own knowledge.  Under the Emperor Constantine the bones of the Apostle were first taken to Constantinople, whence they were afterwards brought to Amalfi.  In the Pontificate of Pope Pius II, his head was carried to Rome, where it is kept in the Basilica of St. Peter.
V.  Tu autem, Dómine, miserére nobis.
R.  Deo grátias.
V.  But thou, O Lord, have mercy upon us.
R.  Thanks be to God.

Amalfi, Italy
R.  Expándi manus meas tota die in cruce ad pópulum non credéntem, sed contradicéntem mihi : * Qui ámbulant vias non bonas, sed post peccáta sua.
V.  Deus ultiónum Dóminus, Deus ultiónum líbere egit : exaltáre, qui júdicas terram, redde retributiónem supérbis.
R.  Qui ámbulant vias non bonas, sed post peccáta sua.
V.  Glória Patri, et Fílio, et Spirítui Sancto.
R.  Qui ámbulant vias non bonas, sed post peccáta sua.
R.  All day long have I stretched forth my hands upon the cross unto a disobedient and gainsaying people, * Which walketh in a way that is not good, but after their own sins.
V.  O Lord God, to whom vengeance belongeth, shew thyself : arise, thou Judge of the world, reward the proud after their deserving.
R.  Which walketh in a way that is not good, but after their own sins.
V.  Glory be to the Father, and to the Son, and to the Holy Ghost.
R.  Which walketh in a way that is not good, but after their own sins.

Sunday, November 29, 2009

Who are the Members of the Church? (Pt. 1 of 3)

A paper submitted by Fr. 'Romanus'
(Copyright of Ite ad Thomam © 2009)

The following paper will treat of the question, "Who is a member of the Church?" This subject being quite broad, only selected considerations of selected authors will be given. The most eminent authorities will thus be consulted,[1] namely, magisterial teaching on the subject, St. Augustine, and St. Thomas. Lastly, the sententiae of some post-tridentine authors will be consulted as the treatise on ecclesiology has developed much since the Council of Trent.[2] The paper proceeds in an investigative method of inveniendi and colligendi as befits the novice, rather than docendi and judicandi concerning such great minds. Nevertheless, it is hoped that some insights can be added from the vantage of point of seeing them all together in retrospect.
Pope Pius XII states in Mystici Corporis (DS 3802): “In Ecclesiae autem membris reapse ii soli annumerandi sunt,  qui regenerationis lavacrum receperunt veramque fidem profitentur, neque a Corporis compage semet ipsos misere separarunt, vel ob gravissima admissa a legitima auctoritate seiuncti sunt.” Therefore by definition of the ordinary magisterium of the Church, it must be held at least as catholic doctrine, that only the baptized, who profess the true faith, and are not separated from the Church by themselves, or by legitimate authority, are members of the Church. Hence non-baptism, heresy, schism and excommunication place man apart from membership in the Church, as Pius XII goes on to say, “Neque existimandum est, Ecclesiae corpus... hoc etiam terrenae peregrinationis tempore ex membris tantummodo sanctitate praestantibus constare, vel ex solo eorum coetu exsistere, qui a Deo sint ad sempiternam felicitatem praedestinati (cf. DS 1201 1203 1205s 1221 2408 2463 2472-2478). ... Siquidem non omne admissum etsi grave scelus eiusmodi est, ut - sicut schisma vel haeresis vel apostasia faciunt - suapte natura hominem ab Ecclesiae corpore separet” (DS 3803).
            There are various senses in which the term member has been used by theologians throughout the ages, referring to the predestined, those with only faith (not yet baptized), those in the state of grace, etc. Thus the term is analogous. In general the senses vary between the just who are united to Christ, and thus part of his mystical body, and those who are visible professed members of the Church on earth. Both senses can be seen in the consistent magisterial usage[3] of the term member, with the more formal sense becoming more pronounced, culminating in the doctrine expressed in Mystici Corporis

1.          St. Boniface in 422, writes, "Sancti Spiritus in nobis atque in vobis una est eruditio eademque doctrina, quam quisque non recipit, non est membrum corporis Christi, nec potest eo capite gloriari, in quo naturam suam asserit non haberi...” (DS 296). Thus showing that members are those who receive the true faith from the Holy Ghost through the Magisterium.

2.           St. Leo, at the episcopal Synod at Chalcedon writes in 451, “...Quid enim fide ad laetitiam superius? ... Quam ipse desuper nobis     Salvator ad salutem tradidit dicens: ambulantes 'docete omnes gentes ...' (Mt 28,19s), quam ipse tamquam auream catenulam praecepto imponentis deductam in nos conservasti, vocis beati Petri omnibus interpres exsistens et illius fidei omnibus beatitudinem attrahens. Unde et nos tamquam principi tibi huius boni ad utilitatem usi veritatis filii Ecclesiae sortem ostendimus, ... uno consensu et concordia fidei confessionem cognoscentes. Et fuimus in communi exsultatione spiritalibus tamquam imperialibus cenis epulationibus in cibis quas per tuas litteras Christus epulantibus apparavit (quasi in imperialibus cenis deliciis spiritalibus epulantes, quas per tuas litteras Christus praeparaverat invitatis), et supercaelestem Sponsum inter nos cernere videbamur epulantem. (D 149) Si enim ubi sunt duo aut tres congregati in nomine ipsius, ibi ait se esse in medio eorum (cf. Mt 18, 20), quantam circa quingentos viginti sacerdotes familiaritatem monstrabat, qui et patriae et labori circa eum scientiam confessionis praeposuerunt? Quibus tu tamquam caput membris praepositus eras per eos, qui tuam continent vicem, rectum consilium demonstrans...,” showing that membership comes from union with the head, the Pope, receiving from him the faith that unites the Church. (DS 306).

3.            Pope Pelagius II in 585, quoting St. Augustine writes, “Ubi namque sit Ecclesia constituta, licet ipsius Domini voce in sancto evangelio sit apertum, quid tamen beatus Augustinus eiusdem dominicae memor sententiae definierit, audiamus. In his namque, ait, esse Dei Ecclesiam constitutam, qui Sedibus Apostolicis per successionem praesulum praesidere noscuntur, et quicumque ab earumdem Sedium se communione vel auctoritate suspenderit, esse in schismate demonstratur. Et post alia: 'Positus foris, etiam pro Christi nomine mortuus eris. Inter membra Christi patere pro Christo haerens corpori; pugna pro capite (Inter membra Christi non numeraberis; patere pro Christo; haerens corpori pugna pro capite)'.” Thus indicating that schismatics separated by legitimate authority are no longer members of the Church. He then goes on to cite St. Cyprian, “Sed et beatus Cyprianus ... inter alia sic dicit: 'Exordium ab unitate proficiscitur, et primatus Petro datur, ut una Christi Ecclesia et cathedra monstretur; et pastores sunt omnes, sed grex unus ostenditur, qui ab Apostolis unanimi consensione pascatur'. Et post pauca: 'Hanc Ecclesiae unitatem qui non tenet, tenere se fidem credit ? Qui cathedram Petri, super quam Ecclesia fundata est (cf: Mt 16, 18), deserit et resistit, in Ecclesia se esse confidit?' ... Cum Deo manere non possunt, qui esse in Ecclesia Dei unanimiter noluerunt: ardeant licet flammis et ignibus traditi, vel obiecti bestiis animam suam ponant non erit illa fidei corona, sed poena perfidiae; nec exigitur (Cypr.: religiosae virtutis exitus) gloriosus, sed desperationis interitus. Occidi talis potest, coronari non potest. ... Peius schismatis crimen est quam quod hi, qui sacrificaverunt; qui tamen in paenitentia criminis constituti Deum plenissimis satisfactionibus deprecantur. Illic Ecclesia quaeritur et rogatur; hic Ecclesiae repugnatur. Illic qui lapsus est, sibi tantum nocuit; hic qui schisma facere conatur, multos secum trahendo decipit. Illic animae unius est damnum; hic periculum plurimorum. Certe peccasse se hic intellegit et lamentatur et plangit; ille tumens in peccato suo et ipsis sibi delictis placens, a matre filios segregat, oves a pastore sollicitat, Dei sacramenta disturbat, et cum lapsus semel peccaverit, hic quotidie peccat. Postremo lapsus martyrium postmodum consecutus, potest regni promissa percipere; hic, si extra Ecclesiam fuerit occisus, ad Ecclesiae non potest praemia pervenire. (DS 469),” showing that those who resist the successor of Peter, on whom the Church was founded and from whom unity arises, are not in the Church, and thus unlike those who fall from grace and are revived through the sacrament of penance, the schismatic cannot enter the kingdom of heaven even if he sheds his blood for Christ, since he is not united to the Church.

4.         Innocent III, in 1199, writes concerning the papal primacy, “Huius etiam primatum Veritas per se ipsam expressit, cum inquit ad eum: 'Tu vocaberis Cephas' (Io 1, 42): quod etsi 'Petrus' interpretetur, 'caput' tamen exponitur, ut sicut caput inter cetera membra corporis, velut in quo viget plenitudo sensuum, obtinet principatum, sic et Petrus inter Apostolos et successores ipsius inter universos Ecclesiarum praelatos praerogativa praecellerent dignitatis, vocatis sic ceteris in partem sollicitudinis, ut nihil eis de potestatis plenitudine deperiret. Huic Dominus oves suas pascendas vocabulo tertio repetito commisit, ut alienus a grege dominico censeatur, qui eum etiam in successoribus suis noluerit habere pastorem” (DS 774). This shows that the members of the mystical body / flock of the Lord, are those united to the head--the Pope, and not those (including Bishops, to whom he writes)  who do not wish to have him as pastor.

5.           The Council of Constantine in 1415, against Wycliffe, condemns the following, “Si Papa sit praescitus et malus, et per consequens membrum diaboli, non habet potestatem super fideles sibi ab aliquo datam, nisi forte a Caesare” (DS 1158), showing that ecclesiastical office is not lost on account of the loss of grace, which makes him a member of the devil, which implies, and seems confirmed from the following condemnation by the same Council, that those who are morally members of the devil, may still be members of the Church as only a member of the Church could have true power over souls.  “Si Papa est malus et praesertim, si est praescitus, tunc ut Iudas Apostolus est diabolus, fur, et filius perditionis, et non est caput sanctae militantis Ecclesiae, cum nec sit membrum eius”(DS 1220).

6.         The Council of Florence in 1439, defined that, “Primum omnium sacramentorum locum tenet sanctum baptisma, quod vitae spiritualis ianua est : per ipsum enim membra Christi ac de corpore efficimur Ecclesiae” (DS 1314), showing that through Baptism we are made both a member of Chirst and of the body of the Church. Note that it does not only say of Christ, as it later says that this is effected more precisely by grace, “per gratiam homo Christo incorporatur et membris eius unitur” (DS 1322).

7.            Against Luther, Pope Leo X writes in 1518, “Romanum Pontificem, Petri clavigeri successorem et Jesu Christi in terris vicarium, potestate clavium, quarum est aperire regnum caelorum tollendo illius in Christi fidelibus impedimenta (culpam scilicet et poenam pro actualibus peccatis debitam, culpam quidem mediante sacramento paenitentiae, poenam vero temporalem pro actualibus peccatis secundum divinam justitiam debitam mediante ecclesiastica indulgentia), posse pro rationabilibus causis concedere eisdem Christi fidelibus, qui caritate jungente membra sunt Christi, sive in hac vita sint, sive in purgatorio, indulgentias ex superabundantia meritorum Christi et sanctorum” (DS 1448) from which it is drawn again that by charity one is a member of Christ (as in 6 above, “by grace”), and thus capable of obtaining indulgences.

8.            The Council of Trent in 1547, against Luther, declares, “Nam fides, nisi ad eam spes accedat et caritas, neque unit perfecte cum Christo, neque corporis ejus vivum membrum efficit” (DS 1531), from which is drawn again the distinction between union with Christ and being a living member of his body, and that faith alone does not suffice for living membership (cf. DS 1582 and DS 1638 which also refer to being members of Christ by grace, and faith hope and charity).

9.            The Council of Trent again in 1551, discussing the differences of baptism and penance, again distinguishes members of the body by baptism. “Caeterum hoc sacramentum multis rationibus a baptismo differre dignoscitur (can. 2). Nam praeterquam quod materia et forma, quibus sacramenti essentia perficitur, longissime dissidet: constat certe, baptismi ministrum iudicem esse non oportere, cum Ecclesia in neminem iudicium exerceat, qui non prius in ipsam per baptismi ianuam fuerit ingressus. 'Quid enim mihi, inquit Apostolus, de iis, qui foris sunt, iudicare ?' (1 Cor 5, 12). Secus est de domesticis fidei, quos Christus Dominus lavacro baptismi sui corporis membra (cf. 1 Cor 12, 13) semel effecit. Nam hos, si se postea crimine aliquo contaminaverint, non iam repetito baptismo ablui, cum id in Ecclesia catholica nulla ratione liceat, sed ante hoc tribunal tamquam reos sisti voluit, ut per sacerdotum sententiam non semel, sed quoties ab admissis peccatis ad ipsum paenitentes confugerint, possent liberari” (DS 1671), from which it is learned that by the gates of baptism one becomes a member of the Church, and that before which point one cannot be judged by the Church, and consequently after it may be judged in the sacrament of penance.

10.         Again, in 1563, the Council of Trent refers to living members of Christ, for which the ratio is holiness of life, “Sanctorum quoque martyrum et aliorum cum Christo viventium sancta corpora, quae viva membra fuerunt Christi et templum Spiritus Sancti (cf Cor1 3.16; 6.19; Cor2 6.16)” (DS 1822).

11.         Pope St. Pius V, in 1567, contra de Bay, likewise uses the terminology of member of Christ through Charity. “Illa quoque distinctio, qua opus dicitur bifariam bonum, vel quia ex obiecto et omnibus circumstantiis rectum est et bonum  (quod moraliter bonum appellari consuevit (appellare consueverunt),  vel quia est meritorium regni aeterni, eo quod fit (sit) a vivo Christi membro per Spiritum caritatis, reicienda putatur (est)” (DS 1962). 

12.         Clement XI, in 1713, against the Jansenist Quesnel, condemns the following statements:

72. Nota Ecclesiae christianae est, quod sit catholica, comprehendens et omnes angelos caeli et omnes electos et iustos terrae et omnium saeculorum. - Hebr 12, 22-24.

73. Quid est Ecclesia, nisi coetus filiorum Dei manentium in eius sinu, adoptatorum in Christo, subsistentium in eius persona, redemptorum eius sanguine, viventium eius spiritu, agentium per eius gratiam, et exspectantium gratiam futuri saeculi ? - 2 Thess 1, 1s: ed. 1693.

74. Ecclesia sive integer Christus incarnatum Verbum habet ut caput, omnes vero Sanctos ut membra. - 1 Tim 3, 16.

75. Ecclesia est unus solus homo compositus ex pluribus membris, quorum Christus est caput, vita, subsistentia et persona; unus solus Christus compositus ex pluribus Sanctis, quorum est sanctificator. - Eph 2, 14-16.

76. Nihil spatiosius Ecclesia Dei: quia omnes electi et iusti omnium saeculorum illam componunt. - Eph 2, 22.

77. Qui non ducit vitam dignam filio Dei et membro Christi, cessat interius habere Deum pro Patre et Christum pro capite. - 1 Jo 2, 24: ed. 1693” (DS 2472-77),

from which it is evident, that neither predestination to heaven nor the state of grace are essential to being a member of the Church, and having Christ for one’s head. 

13.         The following from Quesnell are also condemned:

91. Excommunicationis iniustae metus numquam debet nos impedire ab implendo debito nostro; numquam eximus ab Ecclesia, etiam quando hominum nequitia videmur ab ea expulsi, quando Deo, Jesu Christo, atque ipsi Ecclesiae per caritatem affixi sumus. - Jo 9, 22 23.

92. Pati potius in pace excommunicationem et anathema iniustum, quam prodere veritatem, est imitari sanctum Paulum; tantum abest, ut sit erigere se contra auctoritatem aut scindere unitatem. - Rom 9, 3.

97. Nimis saepe contingit, membra illa, quae magis sancte ac magis stricte unita Ecclesiae sunt, respici atque tractari tamquam indigna, ut sint in Ecclesia, vel tamquam ab ea separata ; sed 'iustus vivit ex fide' (Rom 1, 17), et non ex opinione hominum. - Act 4, 11. (DS 2491-2, 2497),

which show that excommunication, even when reckoned unjust, truly separates one from the Church.[4] 

14.         Benedict XIV in 1749 writes: “deinde id etiam compertum est, eum qui baptisma ab haeretico rite suscepit, illius vi Ecclesiae catholicae membrum effici; privatus siquidem baptizantis error hac eum felicitate privare nequit, si sacramentum conferat in fide verae Ecclesiae, atque eius instituta servet in his quae pertinent ad validitatem baptismi. Egregie hoc confirmat Suarez in sua Fidei catholicae defensione contra errores sectae Anglicanae lib.I cap.24, ubi probat baptizatum Ecclesiae membrum fieri, hoc etiam addens, quod si haereticus, quod saepius accidit, infantem lustret impotem ad fidei actum eliciendum, hoc impedimento non est, quominus ille habitum fidei cum baptismo accipiat” (DS 2567), showing that the baptism of an infant, even conferred by an heretic, makes it a member of the Catholic Church.

15.         Pius VI against the Pistorians, in 1794, writes, “doctrina, quae proponit Ecclesiam 'considerandam velut unum corpus mysticum coagmentatum ex Christo capite et fidelibus, qui sunt eius membra per unionem ineffabilem, qua mirabiliter evadimus cum ipso unus solus sacerdos, una sola victima, unus solus adorator perfectus Dei Patris in spiritu et veritate'; intellecta hoc sensu, ut ad corpus Ecclesiae non pertineant nisi fideles, qui sunt perfecti adoratores in spiritu et veritate: - haeretica” (DS 2615), from which it is infallibly certain that not only the just are members of / pertain to the body of the Church.

16.         Blessed Pius IX, in 1868, to Protestans and other non-catholics writes, “Nunc vero qui accurate consideret ac meditetur condicionem, in qua versantur variae et inter se discrepantes religiosae societates seiunctae a catholica Ecclesia, ... vel facile sibi persuadere debebit, neque aliam peculiarem ex eisdem societatibus neque omnes simul coniunctas ullo modo constituere et esse illam unam et catholicam Ecclesiam, quam Christus Dominus aedificavit, constituit et esse voluit, neque membrum aut partem eiusdem Ecclesiae ullo modo dici posse, quandoquidem sunt a catholica unitate visibiliter divisae. Cum enim eiusmodo societates careant viva illa et a Deo constituta auctoritate, quae homines res fidei morumque disciplinam praesertim docet eosque dirigit ac moderatur in iis omnibus, quae ad aeternam salutem pertinent, tum societates ipsae in suis doctrinis continenter variarunt, et haec mobilitas ac instabilitas apud easdem societates numquam cessat. Quisque vel facile intelligit... id vel maxime adversari Ecclesiae a Christo Domino institutae...” (DS 2998), from which we learn that those who are visibly separated from the Catholic Church, are in no way able to be called a part of member of it, as they lack union with the authority which teaches the rule of faith, morals and discipline.

17.        Vatican I[5], in 1870, declares, “Unde quicumque in hac cathedra Petro succedit, is secundum Christi ipsius institutionem primatum Petri in universam Ecclesiam obtinet. 'Manet ergo dispositio veritatis, et beatus Petrus in accepta fortitudine petrae perseverans suscepta Ecclesiae gubernacula non reliquit.' Hac de causa ad Romanam Ecclesiam 'propter potentiorem principalitatem necesse' semper fuit 'omnem convenire Ecclesiam, hoc est eos, qui sunt undique fideles', ut in ea sede, e qua 'venerandae communionis iura' in omnes dimanant, tamquam membra in capite consociata in unam corporis compagem coalescerent” (DS 3057), showing that membersip in the Church depends on submission to the Roman Pontiff.

18.         Leo XIII in Satis Cognitum, 1896, writes, “Illud accedit, quod Ecclesiam Filius Dei mysticum corpus suum decrevit fore, quocum ipse velut Caput coniungeretur, ad similitudinem corporis humani quod suscepit. ... Sicut igitur mortale corpus sibi sumpsit unicum, quod obtulit ad cruciatus et necem, ut liberationis humanae pretium exsolveret, sic pariter unum habet corpus mysticum,  in quo et cuius ipsius opera facit sanctitatis salutisque aeternae homines compotes : 'Ipsum (Christum) dedit (Deus) caput supra omnem Ecclesiam, quae est corpus ipsius' (+Ep 1, 22s.). Dispersa membra atque seiuncta non possunt eodem cum capite, unum simul effectura corpus, cohaerere. Atqui Paulus 'omnia autem' inquit 'membra corporis cum sint multa, unum tamen corpus sunt : ita et Christus' (+1Co 12, 12). Propterea corpus istud mysticum 'compactum' ait esse 'et connexum ... Caput Christus: ex quo totum corpus compactum, et connexum per omnem iuncturam subministrationis, secundum operationem in mensuram uniuscuiusque membri' (Ep 4, 15s.). Quamobrem dispersa a membris ceteris siqua membra vagantur, cum eodem atque unico capite conglutinata esse nequeunt. ... Est igitur Ecclesia Christi unica et perpetua : quicumque seorsum eant, aberrant a voluntate et praescriptione Christi Domini relictoque salutis itinere ad interitum digrediuntur,” from which it is evident that the members of the Church are like unto members of the body, which cannot each be joined to the head if they are not united to each other, and thus those who leave the mystical body, leave Christ the head, from whom salvation flows.

19.       Pius XII, in 1947 (cf. quotes above from Mystici Corporis to begin respondeo), in Mediator Dei writes, “Baptismatis enim lavacro, generali titulo christiani in mystico Corpore membra efficiuntur Christi sacerdotis, et 'charactere' qui eorum in animo quasi insculpitur, ad cultum divinum deputantur; atque adeo ipsius Christi sacerdotium pro sua condicione participant...” (DS 3851), from which it must be noted that again, one is made a Christian, and a member of the mystical body in baptism, in which a character is given conforming one to Christ the priest, and which is ordered towards divine cult.

20.        Lastly, the Holy Office, relying on and interpreting Mystici Corporis, in 1949, against Fr. Feeney writes, “Idem autem suo modo dici debet de Ecclesia, quatenus generale ipsa auxilium salutis est. Quandoquidem ut quis aeternam obtineat salutem non semper exigitur, ut reapse Ecclesiae tamquam membrum incorporetur, sed id saltem requiritur, ut eidem voto et desiderio adhaereat. Hoc tamen votum non semper explicitum sit oportet, prout accidit in catechumenis, sed ubi homo invincibili ignorantia laborat, Deus quoque implicitum votum acceptat, tali nomine nuncupatum, quia illud in ea bona animae dispositione continetur, qua homo voluntatem suam Dei voluntati conformem velit (DS 3870). 3871 Quae clare docentur in (Pii XII Litt. encycl.) ... De mystico Iesu Christi Corpore. In iisdem enim Summus Pontifex nitide distinguit inter eos, qui re Ecclesiae tamquam membra incorporantur, atque eos, qui voto tantummodo Ecclesiae adhaerent.... 'In Ecclesiae autem membris reapse ii soli adnumerandi sunt, qui regenerationis lavacrum receperunt veramque fidem profitentur neque a Corporis compage semet ipsos misere separaverunt vel, ob gravissima admissa, a legitima auctoritate seiuncti sunt' (DS 3802). Circa finem autem earundem Litterarum encyclicarum, amantissimo animo eos ad unitatem invitans, qui ad Ecclesiae catholicae compagem non pertinent, illos commemorat, 'qui inscio quodam desiderio ac voto ad Mysticum Redemptoris Corpus ordinentur', quos minime a salute aeterna excludit, ex altera tamen parte in tali statu versari asserit, 'in quo de sempiterna cuiusque propria salute securi esse non possunt ... quandoquidem tot tantisque caelestibus muneribus adiumentis carent quibus in catholica solummodo Ecclesia frui licet'” (DS 3821), in which is clearly drawn the distinction between true members of the Church, who have been baptized, profess the true faith, and have not separated themselves or been separated from it, and those who are ordered towards it by a certain desire and will, who by this desire may possibly be saved, but who lack so many helps to persevere in this supernatural state.  

           Summing up these excerpts of magisterial usage of membership, it can be said that members of the Church are those baptized (6,9,14,19,20), and thus disposed to divine and catholic worship (19), who receive and profess the true faith from the magisterium (1,2,16)[6], remain in visible union with the visible head (3,4,13,16,17) and members (18). Predestination (5), nor the state of grace (5,12,15) are necessary to be a member, as those who do not live a worthy life may still have Christ as head (12 (#77)). A distinction is drawn however sometimes between members of the Church and members of Christ (6,7), or as is more precisely spelled out for the latter - living members (8,10,11,) of the Church, or those perfectly united with Christ (8), for which grace and charity are needed (6,7,10).[7] A further distinction is made between those who are ordered towards the Body of Christ by justifying desire, who therefore are in the state of grace (albeit insecurely) but without baptism, and thus not formal members (20).[8]

(See Part Two)

[1] Examination of the sources in Scripture as such will be set aside in this paper as like many aspects of the issue, it would require a whole paper in itself. However key scripture passages will be seen in the citations of the theologians and Magisterial texts. Of key importance are the texts in 1 Cor 6, and 12, in which members are referred to as those having been incorporated into the Body by baptism, and preserved in it by the Spirit. The text in c.6 being more of the moral order, c.12 more of the juridical order. Also very important to the discussion are the parables on the Kingdom of Heaven, and who it includes- just and unjust, wheat and chaff, etc. 

[2] I originally hoped to incorporate the authors who flourished around Vatican I and subsequently (Billuart, Billot, Dorsch, Journet, De Groot, Herve, Berry, Schultes, Zubizaretta, Salaverri, Fraghi, Pesch, Perrone, Theologians of Wirceburg, Palmieri) but alas, time was lacking. Amongst the most useful were Dorsch SJ, Franzelin SJ, Salaverri SJ, Fraghi SJ and Journet. Seeminlgy important works to be read and incorporated as well are Tromp, Murray, and Straub on this subject. The sections of the authors read and incorporated are preserved on PDF format, available through ITOPL.

[3] The following quotes are limited to a word search of the term membrum in Denzinger. Time was lacking for more thorough research, of like terms, and broader collections of magisterial documents.

[4] The Jesuits authors of Theologia Wirceburgensis (v.1, p. 97, an.1852), also note, following this text, that an unjust excommunication would still be valid, and is to be humbly obeyed, though grace may be present still for one’s salvation, as St. Augustine wrote, “Saepe etiam sinit divina providentia, per nonnullas nimium turbulentas carnalium hominum seditiones expelli de congregatione christiana, etiam bonos viros Quam contumeliam vel injuriam suam cum patientissime pro Ecclesiae pace tulerint, neque ullas novitates vel schismatis vel haeresis moliti fuerint, docebunt homines quam vero affectu, et quanta sinceritate charitatis Deo serviendum sit.”

[5] Vatican I, of course was not able to conclude the document on ecclesiology it had well prepared, as the Council had to close early, and only finished the first part on the primacy. The prepared schema, which went through various changes included the following (Mansi, tomus 53 pp. 308-332):
a) The full ratio of membership is not only to be considered from the external bonds of the Church. It uses the distinction between more perfect animated and less perfect unanimated members of the body: “neque tamen qui sunt in ecclesia externis tantum nexibus inter se cohaerere existimandi sunt. Sacramentis enim veluti sacris vinculis Christo Jesu et sibi invicem coniuncti, spiritualium bonorum communio quadam et pietatis commercio sociati sunt…Qua de causa etiam perfectiore modo de ecclesia esse dicuntur, eo quod non solum corpori eius tamquam membra inhaerent, sed spiritu quoque animantur (c.5).”
b) Members of this body are those who adhere to the same doctrine, sacramental communion and government under one head: “Cum igitur hac lege ecclesia sit divinitus constituta, ut in ea Christi fideles eiusdem doctrinae eorundemque sacramentorum communione tamquam corporis membra sub uno capite visibili coalescant; unam esse veram ecclesiam, fide catholica constanter tenuit et profess est….
c) Outside of the Church there is no salvation; however, those who attain to it in spirit, by grace, are sufficiently in it to be saved: “…fidei catholicae dogma esse definimus, extra unam ecclesiam Christi nullam esse sperandam salutem. Hunc vero sensum dogmatis declaramus…si qui nullo suo vitio ecclesiam ignorant…si legem scriptam in cordibus Deo iuvante custodierint, eique obedire in omnibus parati sunt, divinae gratiae operante…vitamque aeternam consequi possunt. Quod si contigerit, non ideo hi extra eccleisam salvi fiunt, quippe ad quam spiritu pertineant, et ideo spiritu pertinere possint, quod ab externa communione praeter voluntatem suam impediuntur” (c.6).
d) The Church is external and visible and does not only consist of the predestined and just: “Canones: 4. Si quis dixerit, ecclesiam, cui factae sunt promissiones divinae, non esse coetum fidelium externum et visibilem, sed spiritualem societatem praedestinatorum vel iustorum soli Deo cognitam; anathema sit.
e) Sects separated from the Roman Church are not part of the Church of Christ: “5. Si quis dixerit, sectas omnes vel aliquot, quae a Romana ecclesia dissident, una cum hac Christi ecclesiam universalem componere; anathema sit.”
f) It is necessary to be in this true Church of Christ to be saved: “6. Si quis negaverit, ad salutem aeternam consequendam necessarium esse, relicto quovis alio religionis cultu, veram Christi ecclesiam ingredi, in eaque fideliter perseverare; anathema sit.”
g) The true Church is knowable: “7. Si quis dixerit, de vera ecclesia homini certo constare non posse; anathema sit.”
 R.P. Iosephus Kleutgen, in the official relatio on this schema has the following qualifying statements. To the many council fathers who wanted a definition of the Church given he says, “Ecclesiae definitio nunc satis communis, quae etiam in observationibus patrum proponitur, haec est e Bellarmino assumpta: Ecclesiae est coetus hominum eiusdem christianae fidei professione et eorundem sacramentorum communione colligatus, sub regimine legitimorum pastorum et praecipue unius Christi in terris vicarii, Romani pontificis. Secundum hanc igitur definitionem ab ecclesia non excluduntur haeretici occulti, siquidem veram fidem profitentur; excluduntur autem schimatici, etiamsi iidem haeretici non sint…Controversia haec, si ex re ipsa ponderatur, non magni videatur momenti esse. Nam qui occultos haereticos adhuc de eccleisa esse dicunt, non ideo eos eodem modo atque vere fideles ad eam pertinere aiunt; et qui schismaticos ab ea excludunt, eos tamen aliquo modo in ea esse non negant. Sed hac ipsa de causa abstinent, ne scilicet sine necessitate aut magna saltem utilitate libertas docendi restringatur, et viris de re catholica optime meritis erroris, nedum haeresis nota inuratur,” from which it is noted that the definition of St. Robert Bellarmine is sufficiently common, to put it beyond debate, but that his opinion concerning the status of occult heretics and shicmatics, is still open to debate.
On chapter 5, he similarly relates, “Ecclesiam non esse spiritualem societatem iustorum vel praedestinatorum, sed coetum externum fidelium.  In expositione huius dogmatis corpus ecclesiae eos omnes complecti dicitur, qui eiusdem fidei et sacrorum communione inter se coniuncti, et eidem summo pastori subiecti sint. Omissum est (post eiusdem fidei) vocabulum, quod plerique ponunt professione, ut parceretur sententiae quorundam theologorum, qui, ut supra commemoravimus, occultos haereticos in ecclesia esse negant, proindeque hoc loco non soluam fidei professionem, sed ipsam fidem requirunt. Parcitur autem horum sententiae, quia incertum relinquitur, utrum communio fidei, quae requiritur, externa tantum, an etiam interna sit. Neque per ea, sequuntur, damnatur aliorum opinio, schismaticos, nisi iidem sint haeretici, esse de ecclesia. Dum enim dicitur corpus ecclesiae complecti eos omnes, qui summo pastori subiecti sunt, non negatur, alios quosdam suo modo in eo corpore esse, sed statuitur contra haereticos, non solos iustos vel praedestinatos, sed eitam peccatores et reprobos posse in ecclesia esse” (p. 322).

[6] So many more endless citations could be made for these categories, for example, for unity of faith and governance could be cited virtually the whole of the Enchiridion Symbolorum, and the condemnations of every heretic and schismatic--anathema sit.

[7] This qualification is important for an integral reading, for the language of members of the body of Christ (2,9), members of Christ (3), seems to be used for formal membership at times as well. It is also important for correctly preserving the unity of the Church, and not making two churches, or severing Christ the head from the body, as well as preserving the sense of the dogma extra Ecclsiam nulla salus.

[8] Cf. Is Feenyism Catholic by Rev. Laisney SSPX, for a summary statement of the tradition on this question, and the ecclesiological considerations that flow therefrom, which will not be incorporated into this paper.

(Copyright of Ite ad Thomam © 2009).

Dominica Ia Adventus: Evangelium & Homilia

Station at Saint Mary Major

Lc 21, 25-33
Jesus finem saeculi praedicit

In illo témpore: Dixit Jesus discípulis suis: Erunt signa in sole, et luna, et stellis, et in terris pressúra géntium prae confusióne sónitus maris, et flúctuum: arescéntibus homínibus prae timóre et exspectatióne, quae supervénient univérso orbi: nam virtútes caelorum movebúntur. Et tunc vidébunt Fílium hóminis veniéntem in nube cum potestáte magna, et majestáte. His autem fíeri incipiéntibus, respícite, et leváte cápita vestra: quóniam appropínquat redémptio vestra. Et dixit illis similitúdinem: Vidéte ficúlneam, et omnes árbores: cum prodúcunt jam ex se fructum, scitis quóniam prope est aestas. Ita vos, cum vidéritis haec fiéri, scitóte quóniam prope est regnum Dei. Amen dico vobis, quia non praeteríbit generátio haec, donec ómnia fiant. Caelum et terra transíbunt: verba autem mea non transíbunt.

῾Ο ᾿Ιησοῦς Χριστὸς προλέγει τὴν συντέλειαν τοῦ αἰῶνος

25 Καὶ ἔσται σημεῖα ἐν ἡλίῳ καὶ σελήνῃ καὶ ἄστροις, καὶ ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς συνοχὴ ἐθνῶν ἐν ἀπορίᾳ ἠχούσης θαλάσσης καὶ σάλου, 26 ἀποψυχόντων ἀνθρώπων ἀπὸ φόβου καὶ προσδοκίας τῶν ἐπερχομένων τῇ οἰκουμένῃ· αἱ γὰρ δυνάμεις τῶν οὐρανῶν σαλευθήσονται. 27 καὶ τότε ὄψονται τὸν υἱὸν τοῦ ἀνθρώπου ἐρχόμενον ἐν νεφέλῃ μετὰ δυνάμεως καὶ δόξης πολλῆς. 28 ἀρχομένων δὲ τούτων γίνεσθαι ἀνακύψατε καὶ ἐπάρατε τὰς κεφαλὰς ὑμῶν, διότι ἐγγίζει ἡ ἀπολύτρωσις ὑμῶν. 29 Καὶ εἶπε παραβολὴν αὐτοῖς· ἴδετε τὴν συκῆν καὶ πάντα τὰ δένδρα. 30 ὅταν προβάλωσιν ἤδη, βλέποντες ἀφ᾿ ἑαυτῶν γινώσκετε ὅτι ἤδη ἐγγὺς τὸ θέρος ἐστίν. 31 οὕτω καὶ ὑμεῖς, ὅταν ἴδητε ταῦτα γινόμενα, γινώσκετε ὅτι ἐγγύς ἐστιν ἡ βασιλεία τοῦ Θεοῦ. 32 ἀμὴν λέγω ὑμῖν ὅτι οὐ μὴ παρέλθῃ ἡ γενεὰ αὕτη ἕως ἂν πάντα γένηται. 33 ὁ οὐρανὸς καὶ ἡ γῆ παρελεύσονται, οἱ δὲ λόγοι μου οὐ μὴ παρέλθωσι.

From Matins of the First Sunday of Advent, Third Nocturn
Lesson vii
Léctio sancti Evangélii secúndum Lucam
The Lesson is taken from the Holy Gospel according to Luke
Chap. 21, 25-33

In illo témpore : Dixit Jesus discípulis suis : Erunt signa in sole, et luna, et stellis, et in terris pressúra géntium.  Et réliqua.
At that time : Jesus said unto his disciples : There shall be signs in the sun, and in the moon, and in the stars, and upon the earth distress of nations.  And so on, and that which followeth.
Homilía sancti Gregórii Papæ
A Homily by St. Gregory the Pope
Homilia 1 in Evangelia

Dóminus ac Redémptor noster parátos nos inveníre desíderans, senescéntem mundum quæ mala sequántur denúntiat, ut nos ab ejus amóre compéscat.  Appropinquántem ejus términum quantæ percussiónes prævéniant, innotéscit : ut, si Deum metúere in tranquillitáte nólumus, saltem vicínum ejus judícium vel percussiónibus attríti timeámus.
Our Lord and Saviour wisheth to find us ready at his second coming.  Therefore he telleth us what will be the evils of the world as it groweth old, that he may wean our hearts from worldly affections.  Here we read what great convulsions will go before the end, that, if we will not fear God in our prosperity, we may at least be scourged into fearing his judgement when it is at hand.
V.  Tu autem, Dómine, miserére nobis.
R.  Deo grátias.
V.  But thou, O Lord, have mercy upon us.
R.  Thanks be to God.

R.  Ecce virgo concípiet, et páriet fílium, dicit Dóminus : * Et vocábitur nomen ejus Admirábilis, Deus, Fortis.
V.  Super sólium David, et super regnum ejus sedébit in ætérnum.
R.  Et vocábitur nomen ejus Admirábilis, Deus, Fortis.
R.  Behold, a Virgin shall conceive, and bear a Son, saith the Lord : *   And his Name shall be called Wonderful, Counsellor, The Mighty God.
V.  He shall sit upon the throne of his father David, and of his kingdom there shall be no end.
R.  And his Name shall be called Wonderful, Counsellor, The Mighty God.

V.  Jube domne, (Dómine) benedícere.
V.  Vouchsafe, Reverend Father (O Lord), thy blessing.
Benedíctio 8: Divínum auxílium máneat semper nobíscum.
R.  Amen.

Benediction 8: May help divine be with us all, for ever abiding.
R.  Amen.

Lesson viii
Huic étenim lectióni sancti Evangélii, quam modo vestra fratérnitas audívit, paulo supérius Dóminus præmísit, dicens : Exsúrget gens contra gentem, et regnum advérsus regnum : et erunt terræmótus magni per loca, et pestiléntiæ, et fames.  Et quibúsdam interpósitis, hoc, quod modo audístis, adjúnxit : Erunt signa in sole, et luna, et stellis, et in terris pressúra géntium præ confusióne sónitus maris, et flúctuum.  Ex quibus profécto ómnibus ália jam facta cérnimus, ália in próximo ventúra formidámus.
Immediately before the passage which hath just been read from the holy Gospel, are found the following words of our Lord : Nation shall rise against nation, and kingdom against kingdom, and great earthquakes shall be in divers places, and pestilences and famines.  Then, after a few more verses, cometh today's Gospel.  There shall be signs in the sun, and in the moon, and in the stars ; and upon the earth distress of nations with perpléxity, the sea and the waves roaring.  Now some of these things are come to pass already, and we fear the others are not far off.
V.  Tu autem, Dómine, miserére nobis.
R.  Deo grátias.
V.  But thou, O Lord, have mercy upon us.
R.  Thanks be to God.
R.  Audíte verbum Dómini, Gentes, et annuntiáte illud in fínibus terræ : * Et ínsulis, quæ procul sunt, dícite : Salvátor noster advéniet.
V.  Annuntiáte, et audítum fácite : loquímini, et clamáte.
R.  Et ínsulis, quæ procul sunt, dícite : Salvátor noster advéniet.
R.  Hear the word of the Lord, O ye nations, and proclaim it in the ends of the earth : * And declare it in the isles afar off, and say : Our Saviour shall come.
V.  Publish it and make it known ; lift up your voice and cry aloud.
R.  And declare it in the isles afar off, and say : Our Saviour shall come.

V.  Jube domne, (Dómine) benedícere.
V.  Vouchsafe, Reverend Father (O Lord), thy blessing.
Benedíctio 9: Ad societátem cívium supernórum perdúcat nos Rex Angelórum.
R.  Amen.

Benediction 9: May the King of Angels give us fellowship with all the citizens of heaven.
R.  Amen.

Lesson ix
Nam gentem contra gentem exsúrgere, earúmque pressúram terris insístere, plus jam in nostris tempóribus cérnimus, quam in codícibus légimus.  Quod terræmótus urbes innúmeras óbruat, ex áliis mundi pártibus scitis quam frequénter audívimus.  Pestiléntias sine cessatióne pátimur.  Signa vero in sole, et luna, et stellis, adhuc apérte mínime vídimus : sed quia et hæc non longe sint, ex ipsa jam áëris immutatióne collígimus.
In these our days we see nation rise against nation, and their distress over all the earth, more than we read in books hath ever come to pass of old time.  Ye know also how often we hear of earthquakes overwhelming countless cities in other parts of the world.  As for pestilences, we suffer from them ourselves, with hardly any intermission.  As yet we do not see signs in the sun, and in the moon, and in the stars ; but the changes of seasons and climates warn us that we may look for these also before long.
V.  Tu autem, Dómine, miserére nobis.
R.  Deo grátias.
V.  But thou, O Lord, have mercy upon us.
R.  Thanks be to God.
NOTE : That during Advent the Hymn Te Deum is not said in the Office of the Season till Christmas.  A Ninth Respond is said instead.
R.  Ecce dies véniunt, dicit Dóminus, et suscitábo David germen justum : et regnábit rex, et sápiens erit, et fáciet judícium et justítiam in terra : * Et hoc est nomen quod vocábunt eum : * Dóminus justus noster.
V.  In diébus illis salvábitur Juda, et Israël habitábit confidénter.
R.  Et hoc est nomen quod vocábunt eum.
V.  Glória Patri, et Fílio, et Spirítui Sancto.
R.  Dóminus justus noster.
R.  Behold, the days come, saith the Lord, that I will raise unto David a righteous Branch ; and a King shall reign in wisdom and shall execute judgement and justice in the earth : * And this is his Name, whereby he shall be called :  * The Lord our Righteousness.
V.  In his days Judah shall be saved, and Israel shall dwell safely.
R.  And this is his Name, whereby he shall be called.
V.  Glory be to the Father, and to the Son, and to the Holy Ghost.
R.  The Lord our Righteousness.

Saturday, November 28, 2009

EWTN's 'The World Over' Denies Christ's Social Kingship


Sed contra: (1) Pius XI says in his encyclical Quas primas (on the Kingship of Christ and the Feast of Christ the King):

17. It would be a grave error, on the other hand, to say that Christ has no authority whatever in civil affairs, since, by virtue of the absolute empire over all creatures committed to him by the Father, all things are in his power. Nevertheless, during his life on earth he refrained from the exercise of such authority, and although he himself disdained to possess or to care for earthly goods, he did not, nor does he today, interfere with those who possess them. "Non eripit mortalia qui regna dat caelestia." [27]
18. Thus the empire of our Redeemer embraces all men. To use the words of Our immortal predecessor, Pope Leo XIII: "His empire includes not only Catholic nations, not only baptized persons who, though of right belonging to the Church, have been led astray by error, or have been cut off from her by schism, but also all those who are outside the Christian faith; so that truly the whole of mankind is subject to the power of Jesus Christ."[28] Nor is there any difference in this matter between the individual and the family or the State; for all men, whether collectively or individually, are under the dominion of Christ. In him is the salvation of the individual, in him is the salvation of society. "Neither is there salvation in any other, for there is no other name under heaven given to men whereby we must be saved."[29] He is the author of happiness and true prosperity for every man and for every nation. "For a nation is happy when its citizens are happy. What else is a nation but a number of men living in concord?"[30] If, therefore, the rulers of nations wish to preserve their authority, to promote and increase the prosperity of their countries, they will not neglect the public duty of reverence and obedience to the rule of Christ. What We said at the beginning of Our Pontificate concerning the decline of public authority, and the lack of respect for the same, is equally true at the present day. "With God and Jesus Christ," we said, "excluded from political life, with authority derived not from God but from man, the very basis of that authority has been taken away, because the chief reason of the distinction between ruler and subject has been eliminated. The result is that human society is tottering to its fall, because it has no longer a secure and solid foundation."[31]
19. When once men recognize, both in private and in public life, that Christ is King, society will at last receive the great blessings of real liberty, well-ordered discipline, peace and harmony. Our Lord's regal office invests the human authority of princes and rulers with a religious significance; it ennobles the citizen's duty of obedience. It is for this reason that St. Paul, while bidding wives revere Christ in their husbands, and slaves respect Christ in their masters, warns them to give obedience to them not as men, but as the vicegerents of Christ; for it is not meet that men redeemed by Christ should serve their fellow-men. "You are bought with a price; be not made the bond-slaves of men."[32] If princes and magistrates duly elected are filled with the persuasion that they rule, not by their own right, but by the mandate and in the place of the Divine King, they will exercise their authority piously and wisely, and they will make laws and administer them, having in view the common good and also the human dignity of their subjects. The result will be a stable peace and tranquillity, for there will be no longer any cause of discontent. Men will see in their king or in their rulers men like themselves, perhaps unworthy or open to criticism, but they will not on that account refuse obedience if they see reflected in them the authority of Christ God and Man. Peace and harmony, too, will result; for with the spread and the universal extent of the kingdom of Christ men will become more and more conscious of the link that binds them together, and thus many conflicts will be either prevented entirely or at least their bitterness will be diminished.

24. Now, if we order that Christ the King be worshiped by all of Catholic name, by this very fact we intend to provide for the necessity of the times and to apply a special remedy for the plague which infects human society. We call the plague of our age 'laicism', with its errors and nefarious efforts.... For the power of Christ over all nations has begun to be denied; hence, the right of the Church which exists from the very right of Christ, to teach the human race, to pass laws and to rule for the purpose of leading people especially to eternal salvation has been denied. Then, indeed, little by little the religion of Christ was placed on the same level with false religions, and was put in the same class most shamefully; it was then subjected to civil power, and was almost given over to the authority of rulers and magistrates; some proceeded further, who thought that a kind of natural religion, and some sort of natural impulse of the mind should be substituted for divine religion. States have not been lacking which proclaimed that they could live without God, and that their religion should consist in an impious neglect of God.  (Emphasis added.)

 Further: (2) There is what Pope Leo XIII says in Annum sacrum:

This world-wide and solemn testimony of allegiance and piety is especially appropriate to Jesus Christ, who is the Head and Supreme Lord of the race. His empire extends not only over Catholic nations and those who, having been duly washed in the waters of holy baptism, belong of right to the Church, although erroneous opinions keep them astray, or dissent from her teaching cuts them off from her care; it comprises also all those who are deprived of the Christian faith, so that the whole human race is most truly under the power of Jesus Christ.
In these latter times especially, a policy has been followed which has resulted in a sort of wall being raised between the Church and civil society. In the constitution and administration of States the authority of sacred and divine law is utterly disregarded, with a view to the exclusion of religion from having any constant part in public life.... When men's minds are raised to such a height of insolent pride, what wonder is it that the greater part of the human race should have fallen into such disquiet of mind and be buffeted by waves so rough that no one is suffered to be free from anxiety and peril? When religion is once discarded it follows of necessity that the surest foundations of the public welfare must give way, whilst God, to inflict on His enemies the punishment they so richly deserve, has left them the prey of their own evil desires, so that they give themselves up to their passions and finally wear themselves out by excess of liberty.
And the greatness of this power and the boundlessness of His kingdom is still more clearly declared in these words to the Apostles: "All power is given to me in heaven and on earth" (Matthew xxviii., 18). If then all power has been given to Christ it follows of necessity that His empire must be supreme, absolute and independent of the will of any other, so that none is either equal or like unto it: and since it has been given in heaven and on earth it ought to have heaven and earth obedient to it. And verily he has acted on this extraordinary and peculiar right when He commanded His Apostles to preach His doctrine over the earth, to gather all men together into the one body of the Church by the baptism of salvation, and to bind them by laws, which no one could reject without risking his eternal salvation.... Therefore not only Catholics, and those who have duly received Christian baptism, but also all men, individually and collectively, have become to Him "a purchased people" (I Peter ii., 9).
(Emphasis added.)

Further: (3) There is what Pope Leo XIII says in Immortale Dei:

As a consequence, the State, constituted as it is, is clearly bound to act up to the manifold and weighty duties linking it to God, by the public profession of religion. Nature and reason, which command every individual devoutly to worship God in holiness, because we belong to Him and must return to Him, since from Him we came, bind also the civil community by a like law. For, men living together in society are under the power of God no less than individuals are, and society, no less than individuals, owes gratitude to God who gave it being and maintains it and whose ever-bounteous goodness enriches it with countless blessings. Since, then, no one is allowed to be remiss in the service due to God, and since the chief duty of all men is to cling to religion in both its reaching and practice-not such religion as they may have a preference for, but the religion which God enjoins, and which certain and most clear marks show to be the only one true religion -it is a public crime to act as though there were no God. So, too, is it a sin for the State not to have care for religion as a something beyond its scope, or as of no practical benefit; or out of many forms of religion to adopt that one which chimes in with the fancy; for we are bound absolutely to worship God in that way which He has shown to be His will. All who rule, therefore, would hold in honour the holy name of God, and one of their chief duties must be to favour religion, to protect it, to shield it under the credit and sanction of the laws, and neither to organize nor enact any measure that may compromise its safety. This is the bounden duty of rulers to the people over whom they rule. For one and all are we destined by our birth and adoption to enjoy, when this frail and fleeting life is ended, a supreme and final good in heaven, and to the attainment of this every endeavour should be directed. Since, then, upon this depends the full and perfect happiness of mankind, the securing of this end should be of all imaginable interests the most urgent. Hence, civil society, established for the common welfare, should not only safeguard the well-being of the community, but have also at heart the interests of its individual members, in such mode as not in any way to hinder, but in every manner to render as easy as may be, the possession of that highest and unchangeable good for which all should seek. Wherefore, for this purpose, care must especially be taken to preserve unharmed and unimpeded the religion whereof the practice is the link connecting man with God.
7. Now, it cannot be difficult to find out which is the true religion, if only it be sought with an earnest and unbiased mind; for proofs are abundant and striking. We have, for example, the fulfilment of prophecies, miracles in great numbers, the rapid spread of the faith in the midst of enemies and in face of overwhelming obstacles, the witness of the martyrs, and the like. From all these it is evident that the only true religion is the one established by Jesus Christ Himself, and which He committed to His Church to protect and to propagate.  (Emphasis added.)

Further: (4) There are many other texts of the ordinary magisterium which teach the same doctrine, of which the foregoing are only an illustrative excerpt, and not an exhaustive citation.  For a more exhaustive treatment of the Church's teaching on this issue, see Ryan and Boland, Catholic Principles of Politics (available through ITOPL); cf. Michael Davies, Religious Liberty and the Second Vatican Council.